Administering Medications Study Set 3
Quiz 14 :
Drugs for the Reproductive System
External genitalia of the female reproductive tract comprise of the following, going from outside in : 1. The vulva , which contains all the external genitalia. 2. The mons pubis , which is a mound of fatty tissue over the pubic bone, covered with pubic hair. 3. The labia majora, which is covered with the skin. 4. The labia minora, which is covered by the mucous membrane. 5. The vaginal opening, which leads into the vagina. 6. The urethral meatus, which opens near the vaginal opening. 7. Bartholin's glands and Skene's glands located near the vaginal opening. Internal genitalia of the female reproductive tract comprise of the following, going from outside in : 1. The vagina , which is muscular, elongated and elastic and starts form the vaginal opening of the external genitalia. 2. The uterus , which is muscular, thick-walled and pear-shaped. 3. Two fallopian tubes , arising from each of the bifurcated branches of the uterus and having funnel-shaped openings. 4. The ovaries that are attached to the distal end of the uterus. The external genitalia of the male reproductive tract comprise of: 1. The penis , which is a muscular elongated structure 2. The scrotum , which is a sac-like structure which contains the testes within it. The internal genitalia of the male reproductive tract comprise of: 1. The epididymis , which is a coiled tube that rests on the backside of the testes. 2. The seminal vesicles , which are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens. 3. The prostrate , that rests between the rectum and bladder.
The numbers of drugs are used to manage uterine contractions and thus stimulate lactation. Oxytocics are drugs that stimulate uterine contractions so as to promote the induction of labor. The most widely used oxytocic is the natural hormone oxytocin which is secreted by the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. The target organs for oxytocin are the uterus and the breast. This hormone is secreted in increasing amount with the distention of fetus into the uterus. This promotes labor and delivery of the baby. This process is ultimately referred to as positive feedback. After the delivery oxytocin is released in response to suckling that causes milk to be ejected from the mammary glands.
The reproductive tracts in humans comprises of the external and internal genitalia. The external genitalia are concerned mainly with protection, copulatory sensations and excretory openings. The internal genitalia are mainly concerned with the production of gametes. The parts and respective functions pertaining to the external genitalia of the female reproductive tract: 1. The vulva : Protects the uterus and the womb (during pregnancy). 2. The mons pubis : Protects the pubic bone during sexual intercourse. Pheromones secreted in the region are intended for sexual arousal. 3. The labia majora : Protect the external genitalia within. Covered with skin, secretions of the sweat and sebaceous glands in it, keep the region lubricated. 4. The labia minora : Covered with mucous membrane, it is rich in blood supply. Blood supply and mucus secretions increase in stimulation and help in copulation. 5. The vaginal opening : Provides an opening to the internal structures. The membrane secretes mucus that helps in copulation. 6. The urethral meatus : Provides an exit for the urine to be expelled from the body. 7. Bartholin's glands and Skene's glands : Bartholin's glands provide lubricant during sexual arousal, whereas the secretions of the Skene's glands help in lubrication of the urethral opening, which is supposed to act as a barrier to the external bacteria. The parts and respective functions pertaining to the internal genitalia of the female reproductive tract: 1. The vagina : It is the female organ of sexual intercourse. It receives the sperms from the male after ejaculation. 2. The uterus : Provides the right environment for fertilization to take place. It is also the site where implantation takes place. The fetus lies in the uterus throughout pregnancy. The uterus helps in the development of the fetus. 3. The cervix : Secretes thick mucus that acts as a barrier for the bacteria. This mucus becomes thin at the time of ovulation so that sperms can swim through and unite with the egg. 4. Two fallopian tubes : They are the site of fertilization. Their funnel-shaped opening with finger-like projections helps in collecting the egg when it is released by the ovary. 5. The ovaries : Secrete various hormones and produces the egg. The parts and respective functions pertaining to the external genitalia of the male reproductive tract: 1. The penis : Provides an organ for copulation and serves as a passage for the sperms to travel from the testes into the vagina. 2. The scrotum : Provides protection and maintains an optimum temperature for the testes to function properly. The parts and respective functions pertaining to the internal genitalia of the male reproductive tract: 1. The epididymis : It stores, nourishes and transports the sperms. 2. The seminal vesicles : They produce the fluid content of the semen. 3. The prostrate : They produce the prostate fluid which forms most of the semen.