Quiz 13: Drugs for the Urinary System and Fluid Balance


The urinary system comprises of kidneys, two ureters, bladder and urethra. The three functions of the urinary tract are as mentioned below. Excretion of waste and toxins. Kidneys filter out the soluble waste products such as urea when blood passes through its dense glomerular network. The kidneys pass these waste products to the urinary bladder through the ureters form where they are excreted through the urethra. Regulation of Ph The kidneys have a mechanism for regulating the reabsorption of substances such carbonic acid and ammonia. Carbonic acid is acidic, and ammonia is basic. Thus, the increase or decrease their secretion helps in the control of the pH of blood on the acidic as well as basic side. Regulation of volume of water in the body The kidneys regulate the volume of water in the body. They do so by creating more when there is excess fluid in the body. It prevents the loss of water form blood by creating less urine when there is less volume of fluids in the body. The amount of water drawn from blood as urine influences the concentration of sodium in the blood. This influences the osmolarity of extracellular fluids and may cause swelling or shrinking of cells. Thus, the function of regulation of water in the body is closely integrated with the regulation of osmolarity.

The medical condition of the presence of urine in the blood is known as hematuria. The presence of pus in the urine is known as pyuria. The hematuria can be of two different types: gross and microscopic hematuria. The medical condition in which an individual person is able to visualize the presence of blood in his or urine is termed as gross hematuria. The opposite to gross hematuria is microscopic hematuria, in which a person is not able to visualize the blood in his or her urine. The presence of hematuria in an individual person can be attributed to different reasons like infection in the bladder, kidney or prostate. The other reasons can be trauma, vigorous exercise, cancer of bladder or kidney and blood-clotting disorders like hemophilia.

The urinary system comprises of kidneys, two ureters, bladder and urethra. The role played by each of the parts is as given below. Kidneys Kidneys comprise of a dense network of nephrons that have glomerular apparatus that filters blood and the tubules that help in the transport and collection of the filtrate. The substances that are to excreted form the filtrate remain in the tubules, whereas those that are required by the body such as water and glucose are reabsorbed in the bloodstream. The kidneys are primarily related to the function of filtration. However, they perform several other secondary functions such as regulation of water, pH and osmolarity of fluids. Two ureters The ureters arise from the kidneys. They transport the urine created in the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Urinary bladder The urinary bladder is a sac-like structure that stores urine. Urethra The urethra is a small tube-like structure that emerges from the urinary bladder and transports urine from the bladder to the exterior. It is the final element of the urinary system that is associated with the physical excretion of the urine from the body.

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