Quiz 10: Drugs for the Cardiovascular System

Medicine

The cardiovascular system of the body consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels. The heart is a vital organ of the human body. The de-oxygenated blood travels through veins to reach the heart, and the oxygenated blood travels through arteries from the heart to reach the different parts of the body, including the heart muscle. Blood vessels consist of veins, arteries, and capillaries. The veins carry deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body to the heart except for the pulmonary veins. The pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. The arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the different parts of the body except for the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. The thin-walled vessels, which connect the arterioles, and venules are called capillaries. They carry oxygenated blood and nutrients to the tissues of the heart muscles. They also take away waste products. The heart has four chambers, such as the left ventricle, right ventricle, left atrium, and right atrium. The functions of the heart are - to supply oxygen throughout the body via the blood, to supply nutrients to the tissues, to remove carbon dioxide and other wastes. The two components of blood are plasma and cells. The three parts of cells are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The red blood cells consist of hemoglobin. The function of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen to other parts of the body. The white blood cells consist of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Granulocytes and monocytes help in fighting the infection. The lymphocytes' functions are to develop immunity of the body. Platelets help in clotting. When any body part gets cut, platelets prevent bleeding by releasing a substance, which forms a fibers type structure over the wound.

The spleen is also a part of the circulatory system. The anatomy of a spleen is a soft, purplish organ present in the upper left side of an abdomen. The four functions are performed by spleen. The major function of spleen is in providing resistance of the body against the micro-organisms. The spleen acts as a filtration unit. This is because it removes old and defective red blood cells (RBCs) from the bloodstream. The spleen also plays an important role in the development of immunity. Thus, it is known to store approximately 30 percent of the body's platelets. The lymphatic system is also a part of circulatory system consisting of moving fluids.

Blood pressure is the force of blood on the walls of the arteries when the heart pumps it. The reading of blood pressure consists of two numbers. The upper number is called systolic pressure, which is measured when the left ventricle of the heart contracts. The bottom number is called diastolic pressure, which is measured when the heart relaxes.  The number of times a heart beats in one minute is called the pulse rate or heartbeat of the patient. The instrument which is used to measure blood pressure is called a sphygmomanometer or automatic sphygmomanometer. By placing the diaphragm of the stethoscope over the apical pulse, count the pulse for 60 seconds. It will give the pulse rate or heartbeat rate of the person.

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