Quiz 8: Drugs for the Eye and Ear


The eye is the organ for sight. Fatty tissues and muscles surround the eyes. These tissues and muscles help in the movement of the eyes. The ear is the organ for listening. It is a complex organ. It helps in maintaining the balance of the body. The three parts of the ear are - the external ear, middle ear, and internal ear. The external parts of the eyes are - eyelid and lashes. Eyelid is a thin fold of skin. It covers the eyes. It protects the eyes from foreign bodies by blinking. Eyelashes are the fine hairs that grow at the eyelid. They protect the eyes from small particles, such as dust, etc. The external parts of the ear are - Pinna (auricle), and ear canal. The outer ear is called pinna. It is the visible part of the ear. It is a funnel type structure. It is also called auricle of the ear. The shape of pinna is a funnel type. The sound reached first to the pinna. It directs the sound to enter into the ear. After passing through pinna, the sound waves reach the ear canal. It is also known as the auditory canal. After that, it reaches the eardrum. The ear canal helps in transmitting the sound from the pinna to the eardrum.

1. The part of the eye that is referred to as the "white" of the eye is the sclera. It is an opaque layer made of fibrous connective tissue, mainly collagen and elastic fibers. In humans, it is white in color. The sclera is the outermost layer of the eye and protects the eye. Hence, the answer is img . 2. The mucus membrane linings of the eye socket and the eyelids are the conjunctiva. They are thin and transparent tissues that cover the sclera and form a lining of the inside of the eyelids. The tissues are highly vascularized. They contain palpebral and bulbar regions. The palpebral region lines the eyelids whereas the bulbar region covers the eyeball. The function of the conjunctiva is to lubricate the eye through their secretions. Hence, the answer is img . 3. The ear canal is the external auditory meatus. It is a narrow channel that runs from the outer ear to the middle ear, and measures about 2.5 cm. It is composed of cartilage and fibrous tissues. This region contains specialized hairs and apocrine glands that produce cerumen or ear wax. Hence, the answer is img . 4. Ear wax is a yellowish to dark brown secretion of the apocrine glands of the ear canal. The wax is also called cerumen. The secretion helps in lubrication and cleaning of the ear canal. It also offers protection to the ear by trapping the microbes in the air. Hence, the answer is img . 5. The primary organ of hearing is the cochlea. It is a snail shaped structure in the inner ear. The cochlea receives sound waves and transmits them to the stereocilia. The movement of the stereocilia is converted into nerve impulses that are interpreted as the brain as the sounds. Hence, the answer is img . 6. The gland that produces tears is the lacrimal gland. The glands are located in the lacrimal fossa, a small notch in the upper lateral region of the orbit. It is an exocrine gland which secretes tears. The tears lubricate the eye and also flow into the nose through the lacrimal duct. Hence, the answer is img .

The functions of sensory organs are to hear, smell, see, touch, and taste. The five sensory organs are - ears, nose, eyes, skin, and tongue. The eye is the organ for sight, and the ear is the organ for listening. With aging, some significant changes occur in the eyes and ears. It affects the visions and hearing of a person. The major disorders of eyes are - glaucoma, cataracts, and eye infections. In these, glaucoma and eye infections are treated with drug therapy. In Glaucoma, the intraocular pressure increases. It causes damage to the optic nerves, which leads to a vision problem. If it is left untreated, it may cause a complete loss of vision. The three types of glaucoma are - primary glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and congenital glaucoma. The drug therapy is available for primary glaucoma and secondary glaucoma. Primary glaucoma can be narrow-angled glaucoma or wide-angled glaucoma. First, drug therapy is used to treat narrow-angled glaucoma. After that, if necessary, surgery is done. The wide-angled glaucoma is controlled with drug therapy. An earlier disease of the eye or the surgery of cataract can cause secondary glaucoma. Drug therapy is used to control it. The drugs, which are used to control glaucoma, are - miotics, carbonic, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, etc. Eyes infections are several types, such as an Increase in Floaters, Conjunctivitis, Blepharitis, hordeolum, etc. Floaters are the nontransparent cells, which floats across the visual field. Due to infection, it grows. Conjunctivitis can be bacterial, viral, or chlamydial micro-organisms' infection. Blepharitis is a bacterial infection. It causes redness, irritation, etc. on the eyelids. Hordeolum is a hard syst on the eyelids. Eye drops or ointments are used to treat these infections. One such ointment is Toramycin, which is used to treat eye infections. The major disorders of ears are - external Otitis and Cerumen. In external Otitis, inflammations and infections occur in the epithelium of the auricle and ear canal. Contaminated water may cause this disease. It can be a bacterial infection or fungi infection. It causes pain in the ear. Topical antibiotics are used to treat this condition. Cerumen is occurred due to increased wax, which is accumulated in the air canal. It can cause decreased hearing. If untreated, it can cause a severe problem. If the wax becomes hard, it causes difficulty in removing the wax. It can cause pain, tinnitus, etc. Lubricating drops are used to treat this condition. It can soften the wax.

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