Quiz 6: Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs
Food is an essential part of life. It is needed to prevent some diseases also. Vitamins and minerals are essential for protecting and maintaining the growth of the body. Vitamins also help the body to use other nutrients effectively. The sources of vitamins are fruits, vegetables, etc. Minerals are necessary for the formation of teeth, bones, production of hormones, etc. Therefore, a person needs to select food properly to maintain his health and prevent some diseases. In MyPyramid, which is developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), assistance is given for buying and preparing food. If a person is taking a balanced diet, he does not need any supplements for vitamins or minerals. According to MyPyramid, food is divided into five groups such as, • Grains, • Vegetables, • Fruits, • Milk and milk products, • Meat beans. For a balanced diet, a person must include food from all the five groups of MyPyramid. All types of whole grains fall under the category of Grains. A person must include three oz. of whole grains, in his or her diet. It may include bread, pasta, rice, cereals, etc. Vegetables are a good source of vitamins. Some vegetables are the sources of minerals also. A person must eat dark vegetables, orange vegetables, dry beans, peas, etc. Fruits are also a good source of vitamins. Some fruits are the source of minerals too. A person should take fresh fruits, frozen fruits, etc. Milk or milk product is rich in calcium. A person must include low-fat milk, yogurt, etc. in his daily diet. Meat should be cooked well before eating. A person can get protein from fish, nuts, seeds, beans, etc.
1. The inorganic elements that are essential for the body for health and growth are called minerals. The cell requires several nutrients for its function. They are the carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Minerals are elements that are required in comparatively small quantities. Depending on the amount they are required by the body, they are classified into macroelements and microelements. Macroelements are required by the body in larger quantities compared to that of the microelements. Calcium, phosphate, sodium, and chloride are macroelements. The body uses them as electrolytes. Elements like iron, zinc, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, and molybdenum are microelements. Several of these elements are required by the enzymes as cofactors. Hence, the answer is . 2. The condition that results from a diet lacking in vitamins is called hypovitaminosis. The prefix 'hypo' means less than the normal. The suffix '-os is ' means a disease condition. Therefore, hyovitaminosis is an abnormal condition of the body that resulted from inadequate vitamins in the diet. Vitamins are required for several essentials functions of the body. The water soluble vitamins like B-complex vitamins serve the function of coenzymes. They are required by the enzymes for their function. Vitamin C has multiple functions modulating the immune system and acts as an antioxidant. The fat soluble vitamins like A and D are required by the cells for cell growth and differentiation. Vitamin K acts as an anticoagulant. Vitamins are indispensible nutrients that must be supplied in the diet. Hence, the answer is . 3. The organic substances (carbon containing compounds) that are essential for normal metabolism are vitamins. Vitamins are required for several essentials functions of the body. The water soluble vitamins like B-complex vitamins serve the function of coenzymes. They are required by the enzymes for their function. Vitamin C has multiple functions modulating the immune system and acts as an antioxidant. The fat soluble vitamins like A and D are required by the cells for cell growth and differentiation. Vitamin K acts as an anticoagulant. Vitamins are indispensible nutrients that must be supplied in the diet. Hence, the answer is . 4. The state of fluid balance within the body is called homeostasis. It is a dynamic state of equilibrium in which the body adjusts to its external environment, still maintaining stable internal conditions. Fluids exist in the body both in the extracellular and the intracellular compartments. The body fluids are water and electrolytes which are in a dynamic state of equilibrium. If the concentration of water decreases, the concentration of the electrolytes like sodium increases, which stimulates the organs that regulate fluid balance. The three important organs that regulate the fluid balance are the hypothalamus of the brain, the kidneys, and the adrenal glands. Hence, the answer is . 5. The particle that carries an electrical charge is called an ion. When an atom loses or gains electrons, it acquires electrical charge. This is called an ion. An atom that loses an electron and gains a positive charge is a cation whereas an atom that gains an electron and becomes negatively charged is an anion. Hence, the answer is .
Vitamins are needed to protect and maintain the growth of the body. Vitamins are organic substances. Vitamins help the body to use other nutrients effectively. Mostly, the digestive tract absorbs vitamins directly. Vitamins have different types of functions. The source of vitamins can be fruits, vegetables, etc. Vitamins are two types - water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins. The water-soluble vitamins are - vitamin C and Vitamin B. The fat-soluble vitamins are - vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K. The human body does not store the water-soluble vitamin. Therefore, everyone needs to replace these vitamins daily. The sources of these vitamins are fruits, vegetables, and animal products. Overcooking and heat can destroy these vitamins. These vitamins are eliminated during sweating from the body. The fat-soluble vitamins can be stored for a longer period. The main sources of these vitamins are milk, milk products, yellow fruits, fish, liver oil, green leafy vegetables, etc. Minerals are inorganic substances. These are needed for the growth and health of the body. They play important roles in the formation of teeth, bones, production of hormones, etc. The two types of minerals are - macrominerals and microminerals. The macrominerals are - calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur. The daily requirements of macrominerals are 100 mg or more. The microminerals are - iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium. The daily requirements of microminerals are less than 100 mg. The sources of minerals are - plant and animal foods. Heat cannot destroy minerals. But, some minerals may destroy by cooking is excess water. Excess minerals are also harmful to the body.
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