Quiz 5: Medication Therapy

Medicine

There are various routes for administrating a drug. And different forms of drugs are appropriate for different routes of drug administration. For example, a tablet or capsule can be taken orally. The four forms of medicines are - liquid, semi-liquid, solid, and semisolid. In liquid form, drugs which come as a solution are soluble in water or alcohol. Solutions are a concentrated form of liquid drugs. These drugs are added with water or juice before administration. It should be measured carefully. The other drugs come as a suspension. Suspensions cannot be dissolved completely in water or alcohol. The different forms of liquid solutions are syrup, elixir, spirits, fluid extract, and tincture. • Syrup is a solution of water and sugar. A flavor is added to It makes them taste better. The amount of sugar in the syrup is approximately 85% of the syrup. The example of syrup is guaifenesin. • In the elixir, the quantity of drugs is 10% to 20%, and the remaining substance is water and alcohol. The taste of the elixir is sweet. Some elements are added in it to make the smell pleasant. The examples of elixir are Phenobarbital elixir, an antihistamine elixir, etc. • Spirit is the alcohol solution of volatile oil, which evaporates very fast. Peppermint is an example of a spirit. It is used to remove gas from the gastrointestinal system. • In spirit, the quantity of active ingredients is 10 to 20%. • The alcohol extracts from plants are fluid extract. They come in a very concentrated form. For example, cascara sagrada aromatic fluidextract. • Tincture is a liquid. It is made up of Alcohol, or alcohol and water solutions. In this 10 to 20% of the solution, are active ingredients. The liquid form medicines can be administered through the mouth, can be dropped into eyes and ears, rubbed on the skin, injected, etc. the main advantage of a liquid form of the drug is that it takes less time to get absorbed in the system. Sometimes, it is difficult for younger children, or infants to swallow a tablet, that time a liquid drug is useful for them. • The different types of suspensions are an emulsion, magmas, gels, liniments, lotions, and aerosols. • The suspension of oils and fats in water is an emulsion. An example of an emulsion is cod liver oil. • In Magna, heavy particles are mixed with water, which forms a milky liquid. It should be shaken well before using. The example of Magnus is the milk of magnesia. • In gels, finer particles are mixed with water. The example of gel is aternaGel. It is an antacid. • Liniments are used on the skin as a pain reliever. They are liquid solutions. The example of liniment is BenGay. • Lotions are the suspension of drugs and water. They are used on the skin. It is used to protect the skin. The example of lotion is calamine. • Aerosols are used as an oral inhaler. An example of an aerosol is albuterol. • The semisolids medicines are - ointment, pastes, etc. • In ointments, drugs are mixed in lanolin or petrolatum. Lanolin is an oil that is taken from the skin of sheep. Petrolatum is jelly, which is made from petroleum. Ointments are applied on the skin directly. Some ointments can be used inside the eyes. The ointments for eyes are labeled as "sterile - for ophthalmic use". • Pastes are ticker than ointments. These are mainly used to protect the skin. The example of paste is zinc oxide paste. • The solid forms of medicines are - capsules and tablets. • In capsule, one dose of medicine is covered with gelatin sheath. The medicine can be in the form of liquid or powder. After swallowing, the gelatin dissolves, and medicine is released in the stomach. • The powder drug is pressed and molded to form a tablet. Usually, a tablet is swallowed with water.

The ingredient in a product that produces the therapeutic effect

There are several routes for administrating various drugs. The selection of routes for administrating a drug depends on the types of the drug. It also depends on the form of the dosage. The different routes for drug administration are - oral, sublingual, buccal, topical, rectal, vaginal, inhalation, parenteral, intradermal, and intramuscular. In the oral route, a drug is administered through the mouth. The drug is swallowed with or without some liquid. It is the easiest way of taking any medicine. These medicines come in the form of liquid, tablet, and capsule. In the sublingual route, a drug is placed under the tongue. The drug dissolves into the saliva and is absorbed very fast. These medicines come only in tablet form. For example, nitroglycerin is administered sublingually for dilating the vessel of the heart. In the Buccal route, a drug is placed next to the cheek inside the mouth. In this method, drugs are absorbed through the mucous membrane, not swallowed. These medications come in the form of a tablet. For example, oxytocin is administered through the buccal route to produce labor in a pregnant woman. In the topical route, drugs are applied to the skin or mucous membrane directly. These drugs come in the form of lotion, ointment, cream, liquid, and gel. These medicines can be administered into eyes and ears directly in the form of drops. In the rectal route, a drug is inserted into the rectum. For example, enemas are inserted into the rectum for stimulating stool evacuation. In the vaginal route, a medicine is inserted into the vagina. These medicines come in the form of cream, foam, and tablets. In the inhalation route, medicines are sprayed or inhaled through the throat or nose. The tiny air sacs of the nose and throat absorb these medicines. Then the drug fills the lungs. These medicines come in the form of gas, droplets, etc. In the parenteral route of drug administration, drugs are injected directly into the body of a patient. This method is used when it is important to administer fluids or in any emergency. In this method, drugs are not absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. Medicines are adminitered in liquid form only. Sometimes, it comes in a powder form. But before administration, a suspension of the powder needs to be prepared using distilled or saline water. The four parenteral routes of drug administration are - intradermal (ID), subcutaneous (sub cut), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) injection. In intradermal routes, the injections are given into the skin. It is administered on the lower surface of the lower arm. Sometimes, the upper chest area or on the upper back below the shoulder blades are chosen to administer the drug. Generally, this method is used when the amount of drug is less. In the intramuscular route of drug administration, the common areas for the injection sites are- Dorsogluteal (above and outside of the buttock area) muscles, Ventrogluteal (side of the hip) muscles, Vastus lateralis (muscle of the thigh) muscles, Deltoid (upper arm) muscles. The injection site depends on the age of the patients. For example, the vastus lateralis muscle can be used to administer this injection to an infant, and the ventrogluteal or dorsogluteal site can be used to administer this injection to a child. The layer of fat under the skin must be considered before selecting the injection site to avoid the injury of the blood vessels of the patient's body.

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