An epidemic is an event in which an abnormally high amount of people in the same community contract a disease in the same time frame. A pandemic is defined as being an epidemic that is found across a large region. This region can encompass multiple continents or the entirety of the world.
Hence, the correct answer is(c)a high proportion of the population over a wide geographic area suffering from the same disease.
An outbreak is a localized increase in the incidence of disease. Hence, the option(a)a sudden rise in the incidence of a particular disease is incorrect.
An epidemic is an event in which an abnormally high amount of people in the same community contract a disease in the same time frame. Hence, the option(b)an atypically large number of people in a region suffering from the same disease is incorrect.
An event in which more than 25 percent of the world's population is suffering from the same disease could be considered a type of pandemic. Hence, the option(d)more than 25 percent of the world's population suffering from the same disease is incorrect.
The hepatitis B virus may be present in the sweat of athletes at the same levels that it is in blood. If the sweat comes into contact with a cut or with the mucous membranes, the virus can infect the body after entering the bloodstream.
Hence, the correct answer is(d)can be spread in the sweat of athletes.
Sexual contact is the main route through which hepatitis B is transmitted. Other routes of exposure are sharing needles, tattooing, body piercing, and childbirth. Hence, the option(a)is spread mainly through contaminated needles is incorrect.
People aged 15 to 39 are most at risk for contracting hepatitis B. The behaviors that put them at risk are having multiple sex partners and using intravenous drugs. Hence, the option(b)infects mostly middle-aged people is incorrect.
The hepatitis B vaccine contains hepatitis B surface antigen. People who should receive the vaccine include medical workers, infants born to infected mothers, people undergoing kidney dialysis, people who have or had multiple sex partners, men who have sex with men, people living in close household contact with an infected individual, people who have a sexually transmitted disease, people who receive tattoos, people who receive body piercings, users of illicit drugs, and people who work in correctional facilities, among others. The vaccine is given in three doses. Hence, the option(c)does not have a preventive vaccine is incorrect.
There is a low risk of a college aged individual contracting meningitis. That risk increases when living in a residence hall as a result of potentially having close contact that can result in the transmission of the infection from an infected individual to an uninfected individual. A person who will live in a residence or is living in a residence hall may decide to be vaccinated as a result of the increased risk. A person, regardless of living situation, may decide that the low risk does not necessitate being vaccinated.