Quiz 16: Infectious Illnesses
Practice: Frequent hand washing Convenience: Soap and water, an alcohol-based hand gel, or an alcohol-based hand wipe tend to be readily available. Advantage: The removal of microorganisms from the part of the body that most often transfers microorganisms that spread disease Disadvantage: When using soap and water, if hands are not washed thoroughly and with vigor, then the hand washing will be ineffective. Practice: Not sharing personal items(toothbrushes, towels, razors, nail clippers, etc.)Convenience: This practice requires as much time as necessary to make the other person understand that the item will not be borrowed. Advantage: Reduction in the likelihood that infectious agents will be transferred onto the item Disadvantage: Potential negative reactions from others regarding generosity, willingness to help others, and trust Practice: Covering mouth when coughing or sneezing Convenience: The practice requires only a simple body movement. Advantage: Protection of others from germs contained within droplets emitted during sneezing and coughing when using the arm, the crook of the elbow, or the sleeve to block droplets Disadvantage: The ability to spread germs if the hand is used to block the droplets Practice: Safe cooking practices(refrigeration, keeping countertops and cooking surfaces clean, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, etc,)Convenience: These practices require only a few minutes of time to complete. Advantage: Refrigeration causes either the cessation of microbe growth or a decrease in the rate of microbe growth. The other practices reduce the amount of microbes. Disadvantage: Less protection from following an improper washing technique
The two types of white blood cells are myeloid leukocytes(neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils)and lymphocytes(B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells). Hence, the correct answer is(a)The immune system has two types of white blood cells: B cells, which produce antibodies that fight bacteria, and viruses. This answer is in addition to the answer of(d)given in the back of the textbook. The effect of stress on the immune system is dependent on the amount of activation the autonomic nervous system undergoes from chronic stress. Over time, the immune system starts to exhibit harmful behaviors in cellular immunity and immune function. Hence, the correct answer is(d)The effect of stress on the human immune system depends on whether you can control the stressor and on the mental effort required to cope. The primary immune system structures are the bone marrow and the thymus. The secondary immune system structures are the spleen, the lymph nodes, the lymph vessels, the tonsils, the appendix, the Peyer patches, the adenoids, the cornea, the skin, the liver, and membranes lining the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the respiratory tract, and the digestive tract. Hence, the option(b)Immune system structures include the spleen, tonsils, thymus gland, and lymph nodes located throughout the body is incorrect. Active immunity derives from the creation of antibodies by the body in response to the introduction of an antigen into the body through vaccination. Hence, the option(c)Inoculation with a vaccine confers active immunity is incorrect.
Some cold and flu medications are different drugs with different mechanisms of action combined into one medication. These drugs tend to be phenylephrine(decongestant), acetaminophen(pain reduction and fever reduction), guaifenesin(expectorant), dextromethorphan(cough suppressant), and diphenhydramine(sleep inducer). Taking these medications, particularly in combination with each other, may cause a user to overdose on one or more of the drugs. In addition, the combination of drugs inside of one medication may cause adverse side effects. Taking a medication containing a single drug that treats a specific symptom is an alternative to these medications. Generic medications can be considered as an alternative to name-brand medications as they are required to be made to the same standards as name-brand medications.