Quiz 15: Major Diseases

Nutrition

A number of methods can reduce blood pressure, including exercise, slow breathing, meditation, reduction of salt intake, increasing potassium intake, use of a coenzyme 10 supplement, and use of blood pressure medication, among others. Exercise reduces the workload of the heart in pumping blood by allowing more efficient oxygen use. When stress hormones are reduced by slow breathing and by meditation, there is a side effect of lower levels of renin, an enzyme that increases blood pressure. Salt reduction may be useful as a result of some blood pressure incidences being sodium sensitive. Potassium decreases the effects of sodium. Coenzyme 10 dilates blood vessels. Depending on the medication, there is a different mechanism of action, but the purpose of all of them is to control blood pressure.

After inhaled oxygen reaches the lungs, it travels to the alveoli. Layers of red blood cells surround the alveoli that have a thickness equivalent to that of one cell and that are closely located to each other. Oxygen passes from the alveoli through the cell layers to the capillaries. Carbon dioxide takes the opposite path from oxygen to eventually be exhaled. Hence, the correct answer is(b)pumps blood first to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and discards carbon dioxide. The heart has four chambers-the right and the left atria and the right and the left ventricles. Blood that comes into the heart via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava enters the atria. From there, it travels through the tricuspid valve(the right side)or the atrioventricular valve(the left side)to the ventricles. Blood, after being in the ventricles, goes into the pulmonary valve(the right side)or the aortic valve(the left side)into the arteries, which transmit blood to all parts of the body. Hence, the option(a)has four chambers, which are responsible for pumping blood into the veins for circulation throughout the body is incorrect. The heart has 103,680 heartbeats per day with 72 beats occurring per minute. The heart pumps about 1,800 gallons per day of blood at a rate of about 1.3 gallons per minute and 2.4 ounces per heart beat. Hence, the option(c)beats about 10,000 times and pumps about 75 gallons of blood per day is incorrect. The branching fibers that comprise the myocardium allow the heart to contract. Each contraction, which is represented as a heartbeat, causes a certain amount of blood(usually two ounces)to be pumped by the heart to eventually enter the circulation. Hence, the option(d)has specialized cells that generate electrical signals to control the amount of blood that circulates through the body is incorrect.

A lipoprotein profile can help identify the risk for developing cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis, among other diseases, as well as the presence of certain genetic disease. Having a profile done is considered to be particularly important for those who have heart disease or abnormal lipid levels and for those who take cholesterol lowering medication. Cholesterol level can be controlled by losing weight, exercise, and eating foods such as fruits, vegetables, and those containing omega-3 fatty acids.

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