Marketing

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Quiz 18 :

Creating Competitive Advantage

Quiz 18 :

Creating Competitive Advantage

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Pepsi Takes Different Spins on Advertising Almost since Pepsi's creation, Pepsi and Coca-Cola have been fighting for dominance in the soft drink market. These "cola wars" have seen victories and defeats on both sides, with Pepsi gaining market share during some years and Coca-Cola gaining dominance during other years. With much of the population unable to tell the difference between the two, the question remains how to convince consumers to prefer one brand over the other. Many consumers tend to become brand loyal early on in life, requiring soft drink makers to develop creative ways to change consumer perceptions about the value of their brands. Advertising is the primary means that these businesses use to persuade consumers to favor their products. For many years, Pepsi has been an advertising guru, spending millions on a variety of media to get its products in front of consumers. The company became skilled at using celebrity pop stars in advertisements promoting its products, such as Michael Jackson, Ray Charles, and Britney Spears. Because the Super Bowl tends to give brands some of the best exposure, Pepsi has had a constant presence at the Super Bowl for many years. In 2010, however, Pepsi deviated from its 23-year practice of Super Bowl advertisements and did something entirely different to market its brand. The company decided to engage in a type of institutional advertising in which it would promote the "social good" by agreeing to fund projects to make the world a better place. The company took the $20 million it would have spent on the Super Bowl and appropriated it to fund the Pepsi Refresh Project. The Pepsi Refresh Project uses social media to create a platform where consumers can vote on projects to receive funding. Consumers are invited to submit ideas on the Pepsi Refresh social media site for projects that would help improve society. These project ideas are listed in four categories: (1) arts and music, (2) communities, (3) education, and (4) the Pepsi Challenge. The Pepsi Challenge asks questions about how consumers would change the world. Those with the best answers receive project funding. Consumers vote on which project ideas they like the best, and Pepsi provides money to the winners to make their project ideas a reality. Pepsi accepts 1,000 ideas each month. The Pepsi Refresh project generated positive publicity from many major news outlets. While this publicity helped to promote the project, Pepsi had to engage in significant advertising to inform the public about the new initiative. Advertising media included TV clips, posters, buses, and even the sides of buildings. Mottos like "Vote Today, Change Tomorrow" and "Every Pepsi Refreshes the World" helped spread the image of Pepsi as a socially responsible company. While Pepsi's objectives for the project were to increase sales, it also wanted to differentiate itself from its competitors and address issues that the younger generation considered to be important. Pepsi-funded projects ranged from SOS animal shelters to eco-friendly theaters. The Pepsi Refresh social media site received 20,000 daily comments. In 2011, Pepsi decided to resume its Super Bowl advertisements. Interestingly, Pepsi decided to use consumers once again to help it come up with a memorable Super Bowl advertisement for its Doritos brand. Similar to the Pepsi Refresh Project, consumers could submit ads and have other consumers vote on them. The winning ad was featured during the Super Bowl. This type of consumer-generated advertising encourages stakeholders to participate and interact with the brand, creating a high-involvement situation that can increase consumer loyalty. Although Pepsi began advertising again during the Super Bowl, it also kept the Pepsi Refresh Project going. The company made the big decision to go global, extending the Pepsi Refresh Project to Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In 2012, the company announced it would also start considering projects in Canada. As the initiative continues, some of the company's objectives have evolved. The success of the initiative will largely be determined by whether the company creates consumer engagement, particularly among Millennials. In doing so, Pepsi not only spreads awareness of its brand among younger generations but is also able to discover more about this customer base, including what issues are the most important to them. By integrating consumers into its promotional activities, Pepsi has been able to extend its reach and connect to consumers in entirely new ways. How did Pepsi change its advertising focus when it began the Pepsi Refresh Project?
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Advertising:
Advertising is the way by which a company promotes its products and lures the customers to buy them
The company instead of hiring big superstars and then them advertising its products, started a platform where the customers can vote on projects to receive funding.
The customers are invited to submit their ideas on the social networking sites of the company.
The ideas are divided into four main categories:
a. Arts and music
b. Communities
c. Education
d. The company challenge.

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Determining the message that advertising is to communicate to the customer is an important part of developing a marketing strategy. A sound understanding of the various types of advertising and different forms of media is essential in selecting the appropriate methods for communicating the message. These decisions form a critical segment of the marketing plan. To assist you in relating the information in this chapter to the development of your marketing plan, consider the following issues: Using Table 18.2 as a guide, evaluate the different types of media and determine which would be most effective in meeting your promotional objectives (from Chapter 17). img The information obtained from these questions should assist you in developing various aspects of your marketing plan found in the "Interactive Marketing Plan" exercise at www.cengagebrain.com.
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The evaluation of the different types of media is provided in the table shown below:
img There are various ways through which this product (fairness cream) can be advertised but the best platform to advertise this product would be through print media, such as magazines and newspapers. Magazines and newspapers have historically proven their worth in establishing the brand value of almost every well-known cosmetics brand.

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What is a target audience? How does a marketer analyze the target audience after identifying it?
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Target audience can be defined as some specific group of customers in a given target market towards whom the advertising messages are aimed. These customers can be of any gender, age group, occupation or income group. This group of customer have specific interests and objectives which they want to achieve.
Marketers try to analyse the tastes and preferences of the target audience by studying their choices of products in the past. This gives them a fair idea about the requirements and purchasing power of the target audience. Conducting a small survey of the target audience can also help the marketers in analysing the preferences of the target audience.

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Toyota Uses Advertising to Restore Trust For decades, Toyota set the standard for quality and reliability. Known worldwide for its commitment to quality production, Toyota created the "Toyota Way," a manufacturing philosophy that emphasized continuous progress and reduced waste. Thanks to the success of the Toyota Way, Toyota became the top automobile manufacturer in the world in 2008. However, Toyota hit a major snag that caused stakeholders to question its quality. In 2009 and 2010, the company issued a series of recalls on several of its popular models because of safety problems with accelerators, brakes, and power steering. Following the announcement of the recalls, Toyota engineers and mechanics began to search for solutions to the problems and started the process of repairing millions of cars. Many critics accused the company of acting too slowly to recall the defective cars and of trying to push the problem under the rug. Toyota was fined $16.4 million for allegedly hiding safety defects from consumers. This came after its reputation was already tarnished by a seemingly endless number of recalls on various car models. The company became the target for late-night television jokes and seemed to constantly be in the news regarding yet another recall. This negative publicity damaged the reputation and goodwill that Toyota had developed over many years. In the wake of massive recalls, Toyota had to adjust its advertising strategy. The world's largest carmaker pulled its national advertising campaign that promoted its cars for dependability, safety, and reliability. Toyota, which had long been the leader in automotive quality, had to scramble to figure out how to handle a growing public relations crisis resulting from recalls and a halt in sales. A series of ads were developed to deal directly with the crisis and admit that the company had strayed from keeping its eye on quality while its sales had been growing rapidly. A number of low-key ads dealt directly with the issue and promised to regain consumers' trust. Toyota also took out full-page ads in major newspapers and produced feel-good television spots featuring dealers, mechanics, and owners. The company offered no-interest loans, discount leases, and a complementary two-year maintenance program to get buyers back. Although the situation looked dim for Toyota, a later revelation changed everything. In 2011, Toyota achieved a victory when the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ruled that most of the accidents were caused by driver error, not mechanical problems. This cleared Toyota from several of the accusations levied against the company by media outlets and irate stakeholders. Yet the combination of the recall crisis and the natural disasters that hit Japan greatly damaged Toyota's sales, and General Motors surpassed Toyota as the world's top auto manufacturer. However, signs now indicate that Toyota is on the rebound. The Toyota Camry and Toyota Corolla are some of the best-selling cars in the United States, and the Toyota Prius remains one of the most popular hybrids. Additionally, Toyota is still the brand of choice for many segments of the population. For instance, American minorities buy more vehicles from Toyota than any other carmaker. One reason is the fact that Toyota has become an expert at targeting advertisements to minority populations. For example, when Toyota became concerned that few African Americans were purchasing its hybrids, the company released a commercial featuring an African American couple deciding that a Toyota hybrid was the best vehicle for them. Sales of the Toyota Prius nearly doubled among African American buyers after the ad ran. After a three-year hiatus, Toyota also began to advertise in the Super Bowl. During the 2012 Super Bowl game, Toyota released a series of ads depicting the quality and luxury of Toyota vehicles. Whereas one ad contained more of a feel-good quality and featured Toyota factory workers at different stages of the production process, another advertisement targeting first-time Millennial car buyers tried to make purchasing a Toyota vehicle into a "game" by using backdrops from Hasbro's Life board game. Although they had the same objective-promote Toyota vehicles-these different advertising messages were tailored to target specific parts of the American population. Toyota's advertising push signals a strong message to its competitors: Toyota is fighting to regain its global dominance. Although the automaker may have more hard work ahead before it can re-obtain its high-quality status, the company appears to be well on its way to rebuilding its reputation. How is Toyota using advertising to overcome negative publicity associated with a product quality issue?
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Toyota Uses Advertising to Restore Trust For decades, Toyota set the standard for quality and reliability. Known worldwide for its commitment to quality production, Toyota created the "Toyota Way," a manufacturing philosophy that emphasized continuous progress and reduced waste. Thanks to the success of the Toyota Way, Toyota became the top automobile manufacturer in the world in 2008. However, Toyota hit a major snag that caused stakeholders to question its quality. In 2009 and 2010, the company issued a series of recalls on several of its popular models because of safety problems with accelerators, brakes, and power steering. Following the announcement of the recalls, Toyota engineers and mechanics began to search for solutions to the problems and started the process of repairing millions of cars. Many critics accused the company of acting too slowly to recall the defective cars and of trying to push the problem under the rug. Toyota was fined $16.4 million for allegedly hiding safety defects from consumers. This came after its reputation was already tarnished by a seemingly endless number of recalls on various car models. The company became the target for late-night television jokes and seemed to constantly be in the news regarding yet another recall. This negative publicity damaged the reputation and goodwill that Toyota had developed over many years. In the wake of massive recalls, Toyota had to adjust its advertising strategy. The world's largest carmaker pulled its national advertising campaign that promoted its cars for dependability, safety, and reliability. Toyota, which had long been the leader in automotive quality, had to scramble to figure out how to handle a growing public relations crisis resulting from recalls and a halt in sales. A series of ads were developed to deal directly with the crisis and admit that the company had strayed from keeping its eye on quality while its sales had been growing rapidly. A number of low-key ads dealt directly with the issue and promised to regain consumers' trust. Toyota also took out full-page ads in major newspapers and produced feel-good television spots featuring dealers, mechanics, and owners. The company offered no-interest loans, discount leases, and a complementary two-year maintenance program to get buyers back. Although the situation looked dim for Toyota, a later revelation changed everything. In 2011, Toyota achieved a victory when the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ruled that most of the accidents were caused by driver error, not mechanical problems. This cleared Toyota from several of the accusations levied against the company by media outlets and irate stakeholders. Yet the combination of the recall crisis and the natural disasters that hit Japan greatly damaged Toyota's sales, and General Motors surpassed Toyota as the world's top auto manufacturer. However, signs now indicate that Toyota is on the rebound. The Toyota Camry and Toyota Corolla are some of the best-selling cars in the United States, and the Toyota Prius remains one of the most popular hybrids. Additionally, Toyota is still the brand of choice for many segments of the population. For instance, American minorities buy more vehicles from Toyota than any other carmaker. One reason is the fact that Toyota has become an expert at targeting advertisements to minority populations. For example, when Toyota became concerned that few African Americans were purchasing its hybrids, the company released a commercial featuring an African American couple deciding that a Toyota hybrid was the best vehicle for them. Sales of the Toyota Prius nearly doubled among African American buyers after the ad ran. After a three-year hiatus, Toyota also began to advertise in the Super Bowl. During the 2012 Super Bowl game, Toyota released a series of ads depicting the quality and luxury of Toyota vehicles. Whereas one ad contained more of a feel-good quality and featured Toyota factory workers at different stages of the production process, another advertisement targeting first-time Millennial car buyers tried to make purchasing a Toyota vehicle into a "game" by using backdrops from Hasbro's Life board game. Although they had the same objective-promote Toyota vehicles-these different advertising messages were tailored to target specific parts of the American population. Toyota's advertising push signals a strong message to its competitors: Toyota is fighting to regain its global dominance. Although the automaker may have more hard work ahead before it can re-obtain its high-quality status, the company appears to be well on its way to rebuilding its reputation. What can Toyota do going forward to restore its image?
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Negative public relations can harm an organization's marketing efforts if not dealt with properly. Identify a company that was recently the target of negative public relations. Describe the situation and discuss the company's response. What did marketers at this company do well? What, if anything, would you recommend that they change about their response?
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Determining the message that advertising is to communicate to the customer is an important part of developing a marketing strategy. A sound understanding of the various types of advertising and different forms of media is essential in selecting the appropriate methods for communicating the message. These decisions form a critical segment of the marketing plan. To assist you in relating the information in this chapter to the development of your marketing plan, consider the following issues: What class and type of advertising would be most appropriate for your product? The information obtained from these questions should assist you in developing various aspects of your marketing plan found in the "Interactive Marketing Plan" exercise at www.cengagebrain.com.
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Pepsi Takes Different Spins on Advertising Almost since Pepsi's creation, Pepsi and Coca-Cola have been fighting for dominance in the soft drink market. These "cola wars" have seen victories and defeats on both sides, with Pepsi gaining market share during some years and Coca-Cola gaining dominance during other years. With much of the population unable to tell the difference between the two, the question remains how to convince consumers to prefer one brand over the other. Many consumers tend to become brand loyal early on in life, requiring soft drink makers to develop creative ways to change consumer perceptions about the value of their brands. Advertising is the primary means that these businesses use to persuade consumers to favor their products. For many years, Pepsi has been an advertising guru, spending millions on a variety of media to get its products in front of consumers. The company became skilled at using celebrity pop stars in advertisements promoting its products, such as Michael Jackson, Ray Charles, and Britney Spears. Because the Super Bowl tends to give brands some of the best exposure, Pepsi has had a constant presence at the Super Bowl for many years. In 2010, however, Pepsi deviated from its 23-year practice of Super Bowl advertisements and did something entirely different to market its brand. The company decided to engage in a type of institutional advertising in which it would promote the "social good" by agreeing to fund projects to make the world a better place. The company took the $20 million it would have spent on the Super Bowl and appropriated it to fund the Pepsi Refresh Project. The Pepsi Refresh Project uses social media to create a platform where consumers can vote on projects to receive funding. Consumers are invited to submit ideas on the Pepsi Refresh social media site for projects that would help improve society. These project ideas are listed in four categories: (1) arts and music, (2) communities, (3) education, and (4) the Pepsi Challenge. The Pepsi Challenge asks questions about how consumers would change the world. Those with the best answers receive project funding. Consumers vote on which project ideas they like the best, and Pepsi provides money to the winners to make their project ideas a reality. Pepsi accepts 1,000 ideas each month. The Pepsi Refresh project generated positive publicity from many major news outlets. While this publicity helped to promote the project, Pepsi had to engage in significant advertising to inform the public about the new initiative. Advertising media included TV clips, posters, buses, and even the sides of buildings. Mottos like "Vote Today, Change Tomorrow" and "Every Pepsi Refreshes the World" helped spread the image of Pepsi as a socially responsible company. While Pepsi's objectives for the project were to increase sales, it also wanted to differentiate itself from its competitors and address issues that the younger generation considered to be important. Pepsi-funded projects ranged from SOS animal shelters to eco-friendly theaters. The Pepsi Refresh social media site received 20,000 daily comments. In 2011, Pepsi decided to resume its Super Bowl advertisements. Interestingly, Pepsi decided to use consumers once again to help it come up with a memorable Super Bowl advertisement for its Doritos brand. Similar to the Pepsi Refresh Project, consumers could submit ads and have other consumers vote on them. The winning ad was featured during the Super Bowl. This type of consumer-generated advertising encourages stakeholders to participate and interact with the brand, creating a high-involvement situation that can increase consumer loyalty. Although Pepsi began advertising again during the Super Bowl, it also kept the Pepsi Refresh Project going. The company made the big decision to go global, extending the Pepsi Refresh Project to Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In 2012, the company announced it would also start considering projects in Canada. As the initiative continues, some of the company's objectives have evolved. The success of the initiative will largely be determined by whether the company creates consumer engagement, particularly among Millennials. In doing so, Pepsi not only spreads awareness of its brand among younger generations but is also able to discover more about this customer base, including what issues are the most important to them. By integrating consumers into its promotional activities, Pepsi has been able to extend its reach and connect to consumers in entirely new ways. Evaluate the public relations project along with why Pepsi decided to resume Super Bowl ads.
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Pepsi Takes Different Spins on Advertising Almost since Pepsi's creation, Pepsi and Coca-Cola have been fighting for dominance in the soft drink market. These "cola wars" have seen victories and defeats on both sides, with Pepsi gaining market share during some years and Coca-Cola gaining dominance during other years. With much of the population unable to tell the difference between the two, the question remains how to convince consumers to prefer one brand over the other. Many consumers tend to become brand loyal early on in life, requiring soft drink makers to develop creative ways to change consumer perceptions about the value of their brands. Advertising is the primary means that these businesses use to persuade consumers to favor their products. For many years, Pepsi has been an advertising guru, spending millions on a variety of media to get its products in front of consumers. The company became skilled at using celebrity pop stars in advertisements promoting its products, such as Michael Jackson, Ray Charles, and Britney Spears. Because the Super Bowl tends to give brands some of the best exposure, Pepsi has had a constant presence at the Super Bowl for many years. In 2010, however, Pepsi deviated from its 23-year practice of Super Bowl advertisements and did something entirely different to market its brand. The company decided to engage in a type of institutional advertising in which it would promote the "social good" by agreeing to fund projects to make the world a better place. The company took the $20 million it would have spent on the Super Bowl and appropriated it to fund the Pepsi Refresh Project. The Pepsi Refresh Project uses social media to create a platform where consumers can vote on projects to receive funding. Consumers are invited to submit ideas on the Pepsi Refresh social media site for projects that would help improve society. These project ideas are listed in four categories: (1) arts and music, (2) communities, (3) education, and (4) the Pepsi Challenge. The Pepsi Challenge asks questions about how consumers would change the world. Those with the best answers receive project funding. Consumers vote on which project ideas they like the best, and Pepsi provides money to the winners to make their project ideas a reality. Pepsi accepts 1,000 ideas each month. The Pepsi Refresh project generated positive publicity from many major news outlets. While this publicity helped to promote the project, Pepsi had to engage in significant advertising to inform the public about the new initiative. Advertising media included TV clips, posters, buses, and even the sides of buildings. Mottos like "Vote Today, Change Tomorrow" and "Every Pepsi Refreshes the World" helped spread the image of Pepsi as a socially responsible company. While Pepsi's objectives for the project were to increase sales, it also wanted to differentiate itself from its competitors and address issues that the younger generation considered to be important. Pepsi-funded projects ranged from SOS animal shelters to eco-friendly theaters. The Pepsi Refresh social media site received 20,000 daily comments. In 2011, Pepsi decided to resume its Super Bowl advertisements. Interestingly, Pepsi decided to use consumers once again to help it come up with a memorable Super Bowl advertisement for its Doritos brand. Similar to the Pepsi Refresh Project, consumers could submit ads and have other consumers vote on them. The winning ad was featured during the Super Bowl. This type of consumer-generated advertising encourages stakeholders to participate and interact with the brand, creating a high-involvement situation that can increase consumer loyalty. Although Pepsi began advertising again during the Super Bowl, it also kept the Pepsi Refresh Project going. The company made the big decision to go global, extending the Pepsi Refresh Project to Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In 2012, the company announced it would also start considering projects in Canada. As the initiative continues, some of the company's objectives have evolved. The success of the initiative will largely be determined by whether the company creates consumer engagement, particularly among Millennials. In doing so, Pepsi not only spreads awareness of its brand among younger generations but is also able to discover more about this customer base, including what issues are the most important to them. By integrating consumers into its promotional activities, Pepsi has been able to extend its reach and connect to consumers in entirely new ways. What does Pepsi gain in trying to encourage consumers to participate in its promotional activities?
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What is the difference between competitive advertising and comparative advertising?
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LEGO Company LEGO Company has been making toys since 1932 and has become one of the most recognized brand names in the toy industry. With the company motto "Only the best is good enough," it is no surprise that LEGO has developed an exciting and interactive online presence. See how the company promotes LEGO products and encourages consumer involvement with the brand by visiting LEGO's website at www.lego.com. What target audience is LEGO attempting to reach through its website?
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What is the difference between institutional and product advertising?
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An organization must define its objectives carefully when developing an advertising campaign. Which of the following advertising objectives would be most useful for a company, and why? a. The organization will spend $1 million to move from second in market share to market leader. b. The organization wants to increase sales from $1.2 million to $1.5 million this year to gain the lead in market share. c. The advertising objective is to gain as much market share as possible within the next 12 months. d. The advertising objective is to increase sales by 15 percent.
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Copy, the verbal portion of advertising, is used to move readers through a persuasive sequence called AIDA: attention, interest, desire, and action. To achieve this, some copywriters have adopted guidelines for developing advertising copy. Select a print ad and identify how it (a) identifies a specific problem, (b) recommends the product as the best solution to the problem, (c) states the product's advantages and benefits, (d) substantiates the ad's claims, and (e) asks the reader to take action.
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LEGO Company LEGO Company has been making toys since 1932 and has become one of the most recognized brand names in the toy industry. With the company motto "Only the best is good enough," it is no surprise that LEGO has developed an exciting and interactive online presence. See how the company promotes LEGO products and encourages consumer involvement with the brand by visiting LEGO's website at www.lego.com. Which type of advertising is LEGO Company using on its website?
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Determining the message that advertising is to communicate to the customer is an important part of developing a marketing strategy. A sound understanding of the various types of advertising and different forms of media is essential in selecting the appropriate methods for communicating the message. These decisions form a critical segment of the marketing plan. To assist you in relating the information in this chapter to the development of your marketing plan, consider the following issues: Discuss the different methods for determining the advertising appropriation. The information obtained from these questions should assist you in developing various aspects of your marketing plan found in the "Interactive Marketing Plan" exercise at www.cengagebrain.com.
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LEGO Company LEGO Company has been making toys since 1932 and has become one of the most recognized brand names in the toy industry. With the company motto "Only the best is good enough," it is no surprise that LEGO has developed an exciting and interactive online presence. See how the company promotes LEGO products and encourages consumer involvement with the brand by visiting LEGO's website at www.lego.com. Identify the advertising objectives LEGO is attempting to achieve through its website
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Advertisers use several types of publicity mechanisms. Look through some recent newspapers and magazines or use an Internet search engine and identify a news release, a feature article, or a captioned photograph used to publicize a product. Describe the type of product.
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Toyota Uses Advertising to Restore Trust For decades, Toyota set the standard for quality and reliability. Known worldwide for its commitment to quality production, Toyota created the "Toyota Way," a manufacturing philosophy that emphasized continuous progress and reduced waste. Thanks to the success of the Toyota Way, Toyota became the top automobile manufacturer in the world in 2008. However, Toyota hit a major snag that caused stakeholders to question its quality. In 2009 and 2010, the company issued a series of recalls on several of its popular models because of safety problems with accelerators, brakes, and power steering. Following the announcement of the recalls, Toyota engineers and mechanics began to search for solutions to the problems and started the process of repairing millions of cars. Many critics accused the company of acting too slowly to recall the defective cars and of trying to push the problem under the rug. Toyota was fined $16.4 million for allegedly hiding safety defects from consumers. This came after its reputation was already tarnished by a seemingly endless number of recalls on various car models. The company became the target for late-night television jokes and seemed to constantly be in the news regarding yet another recall. This negative publicity damaged the reputation and goodwill that Toyota had developed over many years. In the wake of massive recalls, Toyota had to adjust its advertising strategy. The world's largest carmaker pulled its national advertising campaign that promoted its cars for dependability, safety, and reliability. Toyota, which had long been the leader in automotive quality, had to scramble to figure out how to handle a growing public relations crisis resulting from recalls and a halt in sales. A series of ads were developed to deal directly with the crisis and admit that the company had strayed from keeping its eye on quality while its sales had been growing rapidly. A number of low-key ads dealt directly with the issue and promised to regain consumers' trust. Toyota also took out full-page ads in major newspapers and produced feel-good television spots featuring dealers, mechanics, and owners. The company offered no-interest loans, discount leases, and a complementary two-year maintenance program to get buyers back. Although the situation looked dim for Toyota, a later revelation changed everything. In 2011, Toyota achieved a victory when the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ruled that most of the accidents were caused by driver error, not mechanical problems. This cleared Toyota from several of the accusations levied against the company by media outlets and irate stakeholders. Yet the combination of the recall crisis and the natural disasters that hit Japan greatly damaged Toyota's sales, and General Motors surpassed Toyota as the world's top auto manufacturer. However, signs now indicate that Toyota is on the rebound. The Toyota Camry and Toyota Corolla are some of the best-selling cars in the United States, and the Toyota Prius remains one of the most popular hybrids. Additionally, Toyota is still the brand of choice for many segments of the population. For instance, American minorities buy more vehicles from Toyota than any other carmaker. One reason is the fact that Toyota has become an expert at targeting advertisements to minority populations. For example, when Toyota became concerned that few African Americans were purchasing its hybrids, the company released a commercial featuring an African American couple deciding that a Toyota hybrid was the best vehicle for them. Sales of the Toyota Prius nearly doubled among African American buyers after the ad ran. After a three-year hiatus, Toyota also began to advertise in the Super Bowl. During the 2012 Super Bowl game, Toyota released a series of ads depicting the quality and luxury of Toyota vehicles. Whereas one ad contained more of a feel-good quality and featured Toyota factory workers at different stages of the production process, another advertisement targeting first-time Millennial car buyers tried to make purchasing a Toyota vehicle into a "game" by using backdrops from Hasbro's Life board game. Although they had the same objective-promote Toyota vehicles-these different advertising messages were tailored to target specific parts of the American population. Toyota's advertising push signals a strong message to its competitors: Toyota is fighting to regain its global dominance. Although the automaker may have more hard work ahead before it can re-obtain its high-quality status, the company appears to be well on its way to rebuilding its reputation. Why did Toyota have to pull advertising for its cars' dependability, safety, and reliability during a time when it was getting so much public attention for safety recalls related to sudden acceleration?
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What are the major steps in creating an advertising campaign?
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