Employee A is on an outside errand for an employer but finished her task earlier than expected. Since A is being paid by the employer she should report back to the employer and ask her supervisor whether she can take some time off. She is being paid for the time when she's doing her personal task so it's a lost to the employer.
Applying the Nash model, the problem is whether employee should take when she is not expected to be back yet. The employer would be unhappy since he is paying her and anything she does on her own time is a lost to the employer. Her intentions may be good, for example, she may have to visit her children in the hospital, but in any case she should still let the employer know. If she talks to her employer it will improve communication between them and may lead to better workplace conditions.
There is no excuse for students copying content on the internet and passing it as their own. It is totally unacceptable and breaks academic integrity. The teacher had already warned students not to use papers from the internet so the parents can't say that there are no "written" guidelines when it was expressed to the students. People worry about this conduct because academic work is suppose to have some originality by copying from others not only does this lead readers to misconstrue it as original work but it also limits research as it doesn't cite the original source.
The internet has a bulk of information but some information are trash and others are good, more importantly why sources must be properly cited to allow people to do further inquiry. As Newton says "stand on the shoulder of giants" a lot of previous academic work led Newton to development of physics and calculus, if we cut out those sources and use everything as our own, we stop the academic progress.
Adherence to positive law as an ethical standard view written laws as the ultimate guide to personal ethics. This conflicts with the given Adam Smith quote "our conduct should rather be directed by a certain idea of propriety…than by any regard to a precise maxim or rule."
The quote does have some moral relativistic views, "certain taste for a particular tenor of conduct"
"consider the end and foundation of the rule, more than the rule itself". This doesn't explicitly say that Smith argues for violating the law, rather that people should dogmatize themselves to legal words, but to emphasize on the reason behind the law.