Environmental Science Study Set 5

Environmental Science

Quiz 14 :

Environmental Hazards and Human Health

Quiz 14 :

Environmental Hazards and Human Health

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The graph below shows the effects of AIDS on life expectancy at birth in Botswana, 19502000, and projects these effects to 2050. Answer the questions below. img a. By what percentage is life expectancy in Botswana projected to increase between 2015 and 2050 b. By what percentage was life expectancy in Botswana projected to decrease between 1995 and 2050
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(a)
The age for life expectancy during 2015 is 30 years, and the age in 2050 is 45 years.
img Hence, the increase in life expectancy is: 50%.
(b)
The age for life expectancy during 1995 is 65 years and the age in 2050 is 45 years.
img Hence, the decrease in life expectancy is: 31%. These results show that the life expectancy is decreased.

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Describe the potential risks from exposure to trace amounts of hormone mimics such as bisphenol A (Core Case Study).
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Hormone mimic such as bisphenoal A (BPA) can cause many dangerous risks to the humans. The potential risks are infertility, diminished sex drive, low sperm count, smaller size of penises and others. The main dangerous are to the infants, and fetuses. The risks are very high.

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Pick a potentially harmful chemical not discussed in detail in this chapter and use the library or Internet to evaluate (a) what it is used for and how widely it is used, (b) its potential harm, (c) the scientific evidence for such claims, and (d) solutions for dealing with this threat. Pick a study area, such as your dorm or apartment building, your block, or your city. In this area. try to determine the level of presence of the chemical you are studying You could do this by finding 4 or 5 examples of items or locations containing the chemical and then estimating the total amount based on your sample.
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Brominated flame retardants (BFR) are used to alter the ignition of the combustible products. These chemicals help to avoid the reactivity of the products with fire. These are mainly used in textile and plastics. The major applications are electronics, furniture and clothing. It is excessively used in tons of polymers to enhance the properties. In North America the use of brominated retardants in very high and products are internationally supplied.
The major harmful effects from the use of BFR are endocrine disruption and neurological problems. It is also found to effect the environment and wild life. Some species which are endangered species like red panda have traces of this chemical in the body. Therefore, the use of these chemicals in products must be limited or banned.
Studies show that the major disruption in the endocrine system in humans is caused by BFR. It is due to fact that the compounds used in the products have similar structure to that of hormones and cause disruption in the endocrine system. In 2001 Hagmat et al find the affect of BFR on the human thyroid system and the BFR introduced in the body of humans from the Baltic Sea fish. The conclusion of the finding led to the restriction on the use of BFR.
European and US (United States) regulators ban the use of BFR. PentaPDBE and octaPDBE are banned from the market because of its dangerous affect on the neurological system. The use of BFR must be limited not because these have affects on humans but these are also affect on the wildlife.
The presence of the chemical is about 70% in the small building apartment. The presence of these compounds make difficult for the human and wildlife. These chemical must be limited or banned on the basis of the danger exposed to the people and wildlife.

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Explain why you agree or disagree with the proposals for reducing the death toll and other harmful effects of smoking listed in the Case Study on p. 367. Do you believe there should be a ban on smoking indoors in all public places Explain.
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The graph below shows the effects of AIDS on life expectancy at birth in Botswana, 19502000, and projects these effects to 2050. Answer the questions below. img a. By what percentage did life expectancy in Botswana increase between 1950 and 1995 b. By what percentage was life expectancy in Botswana projected to decrease between 1995 and 2015
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What is the key concept for this section Distinguish among risk, risk assessment, and risk management. Distinguish between possibility and probability. Give an example of a risk from each of the following: biological hazards, chemical hazards, physical hazards, cultural hazards, and lifestyle choices. What is a pathogen
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What are the three major risks you face from (a) your lifestyle, (b) where you live, and (c) what you do for a living Which of these risks are voluntary and which are involuntary List three steps you could take to reduce these risks. Which of these steps do you already take or plan to take
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Workers in a number of industries are exposed to higher levels of various toxic substances than is the general public. Should we reduce workplace levels allowed for such chemicals What economic effects might this have
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What is the key concept for this section What is risk analysis In terms of premature deaths, what are the three greatest threats that people face Describe the health threats from smoking and how we can reduce these threats.
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Evaluate the following statements: a. We should not worry much about exposure to toxic chemicals because almost any chemical, at a large enough dosage, can cause some harm. b. We should not worry much about exposure to toxic chemicals because, through genetic adaptation, we can develop immunities to such chemicals. c. We should not worry much about exposure to toxic chemicals because we can use genetic engineering to reduce our susceptibility to their effects. d. We should not worry about exposure to a chemical such, is bisphenol A (BPA) because it has not been absolutely proven scientifically that BPA hits killed anyone.
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what are three actions you would take to reduce the global threats to human health and life from (a) tuberculosis, (b) HIV/AIDS, and (c) malaria
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Search for bisphenol A ( BPA ) and research the latest developments in studies of the potentially harmful health effects of BPA (Core Case Study) , List the names of three or four countries that have restricted its use. Pick one of these countries and try to find some details on how that country is regulating; the use of BPA. Write a short report summarizing your findings. Have any countries completely banned the use of BPA What are they Try to find reports of two studies that, give opposing conclusions about how BPA should be regulated. Summarize the arguments for these conclusions on both sides. Based on what you have found, do you believe the use of BPA should be regulated more strictly in the state or country where you live Should it be banned altogether Explain your reasoning.
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Congratulations! You are in charge of the world. List the three most important features of your program to reduce the risks from exposure to (a) infectious disease organisms and (b) toxic and hazardous chemicals.
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Describe the threat from malaria for about 47% of the world's people and how we can reduce this threat. Explain how deforestation can increase the spread of malaria. List five major ways to reduce the global threat from infectious diseases.
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What is the key concept for this section What is a toxic chemical Distinguish among carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens, and give an example of each. Describe the human immune, nervous, and endocrine systems and give an example of a chemical that can threaten each of these systems. Describe the toxic effects of the various forms of mercury and ways to reduce these threats. What are hormonally active agents, what risks do they pose, and how can we reduce these risks Summarize concerns about exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and the controversy over what to do about exposure to this chemical ( Core Case Study ). Summarize concerns over exposure to phthalates.
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Should we ban the use of hormone mimics such us bisphenol A (Core Case Study) in products used By children younger than age 5 Should we ban them for use in all products Explain.
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In deciding what to do about risks from chemicals in the area where you live, would you support legislation requiring the use of pollution prevention based on the precautionary principle Explain.
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Describe the global threat from tuberculosis. Describe the threat from flu. Summarize the story of health threats from the global HIV/AIDS pandemic and list six ways to reduce these threats. Describe and compare the threats from the hepatitis B and West Nile viruses.
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What are the two key concepts for this section Define toxicology, toxicity, dose, and response. Give three reasons why children are more vulnerable to harm from toxic chemicals than are adults. Explain how the toxicity of a substance can be estimated by testing laboratory animals, and discuss the limitations of this approach. What is a dose-response curve Explain how toxicities are estimated through use of case reports and epidemiological studies, and discuss the limitations of these approaches. Why do we know so little about the harmful effects of chemicals Discuss the use of the precautionary principle and pollution prevention in dealing with health threats from chemicals.
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What is the key concept for this section Distinguish between bacteria and viruses, and how the diseases they can cause are usually treated. Distinguish among infectious disease, transmissible disease, and nontransmissible disease, and give an example of each. List four ways in which infectious organisms can enter the body. In terms of death rates, what are the world's four most serious infectious diseases Distinguish between an epidemic and a pandemic of an infectious disease. List the causes and possible solutions for the increasing genetic resistance to commonly used antibiotics. What is MRSA and why is it so threatening
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