Population refers to a group of individuals of the same species in a specified area. The population of a specified area is characterized in part by size, density, distribution, and age structure. These parameters are measurable. The growth rate of a population in a specified interval depends on the rate of births, death, immigration, and emigration. Hence, the option (f) all of the above is correct.

Population grows exponentially when the growing rate of population is proportional to its size. During exponential growth, the reproductive base and population size increases at a fixed rate in a given time interval. Hence, the option (a) its rate of increase is proportional to the size of its reproductive base in a given interval is correct. In logistic growth pattern, the size of a low density population increases slowly, then rapidly, and then maintains constant once the carrying capacity is touched. Hence, the option (b) is incorrect. For a population, the exponential growth pattern and a logistic growth pattern are two different characteristics. Hence, the option (c) a and b are characteristics of exponential growth is incorrect.

The distribution of a population typically explains about a pattern in which individuals are dispersed in a specified area. In an area inhabited with different species, it is observed that there exists a competition for energy, nutrients, living space, and other resources. Such interspecific interactions influence population's density. In addition, it also encourages different species to adapt themselves in the changing environment. Thus, in a population with different life histories show adaptive behavior in the same desert environment.