Biology Study Set 13

Biology

Quiz 42 :

Animal Reproductive Systems

Quiz 42 :

Animal Reproductive Systems

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Protein breakdown produces toxic ammonia. In all mammals, ammonia is converted to urea, which can only be eliminated when dissolved in water in urine. Birds and reptiles convert it to uric acid, a solid that can be excreted when mixed with a small amount of water. It takes twenty to thirty times more water to excrete 1 gram of urea than it does to excrete 1 gram of uric acid. Formulate a hypothesis regarding how this difference might relate to the species richness of birds, mammals, and reptiles in different environments. Devise a way to test your hypothesis.
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As the proteins present in our body break, they produce toxic ammonia. This ammonia will be converted to urea, in all mammals. The urea produced can be eliminated from the body when it is dissolved in water present in the urine. In a similar way, in birds and reptiles, the ammonia produced will be converted as uric acid. This solid substance will be excreted when it dissolves with little amount of water.
The amount of water required to excrete 1 gram of urea is twenty to thirty times more than that is required to eliminate 1 gram of uric acid. This indicates that mammals require more amount of water, than birds and reptiles do. Thus, water is the deciding factor for species richness of mammals, birds, and reptiles.
For mammals to be more in number there should be good amount of water in their surroundings. But, birds and reptiles can survive well even when there is very little amount of water. For example, lizards can live long even without water. They have the ability to absorb moisture from the solid food they eat.
In order to test our hypothesis, let us examine the area in which there is very less amount of water. If we count the numbers of each species surviving in that area, then we can observe the numbers of mammals to be very less, than birds and reptiles. This shows the importance of water for the survival of mammals. Unless the toxic ammonia is converted to urea, no mammal can survive on the land.
Thus, the species richness is related to the amount of water required for the conversion of toxic ammonia into urea and uric acid.

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Match each structure with a function. img
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1) Ureter is a channel or tube that connects the kidney to the urinary bladder. These carry the urine filtered from the kidneys to the urinary bladder to get expelled from the body.
Hence, 1 matches with (c) 'carries urine from kidney to bladder'.
2) Bowman's capsule is the part of nephron from where the nephron starts. It collects the fluid from the glomerular capillaries.
Hence, 2 matches with (a) 'start of nephron'.
3) Urethra is the tube that carries the urine from the urinary bladder to the body surface so that it can be expelled from the body.
Hence, 3 matches with (b) 'delivers urine to body surface'.
4) Collecting duct connects the nephron to ureter. It receives the aldosterone secreted by the adrenal gland which stimulates the sodium-potassium pump.
Hence, 4 matches with (e) 'target of aldosterone'.
5) Pituitary gland is one of the major gland of the body. It plays role in excretory system by releasing ADH.
Hence, 5 matches with (d) 'secretes ADH'.

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Is this statement true or false: Thirst behavior is initiated and controlled exclusively by a thirst center in the hypothalamus.
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The thirst behaviour is initiated and controlled by a negative feedback loop between kidney and brain.
It involves a thirst centre located in the hypothalamus along with the pituitary gland which secretes the ADH and osmoreceptors located in the brain.
Thus, thirst centre of the hypothalamus is not exclusively involved in initiating and controlling the thirst behaviours.
Hence, it is false that thirst centre in hypothalamus is exclusively involved in initiating and controlling thirst behaviour.

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The main control center for maintaining the temperature of the mammalian body is in the ___________.
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Licorice ( Glycyrrhiza ) is used as a remedy in Chinese traditional medicine and also is a flavoring for candy. When licorice is eaten, one of its components triggers the formation of a compound that mimics aldosterone and binds to receptors for it. Based on this information, explain why people who have high blood pressure are advised to avoid eating much licorice.
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Negative feedback loops that maintain a mammals core temperature involve __________.
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Kidneys return most of the water and small solutes back to blood by way of ___________.
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Fluid filtered into Bowman's capsule flows directly into the ________________.
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Bowman's capsule, the start of the tubular part of a nephron, is located in the.
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Label the structures in the following diagrams and name their functions: img
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Water and small solutes from blood enter nephrons during ___________.
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Match each term with the most suitable description. img
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Animals that live in cold habitats continually lose heat to their environment. Ectotherms are few and endotherms often show morphological adaptations to cold. Compared to closely related species that live in warmer areas, cold dwellers tend to have smaller appendages. For example, relative to its body size, the arctic hare has ears that are far shorter than those of hares that live in more temperate zones. Also, animals adapted to cool climates tend to be larger than related species that evolved in warmer places. For example, the largest bear species is the polar bear and the largest penguin is Antarcticas emperor penguin. Think about heat transfers between animals and their habitat, then explain why smaller appendages and larger overall body size are advantageous in very cold climates.
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ADH binds to receptors on distal tubules and collecting ducts making them _____________ permeable to ______________.
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Two-thirds of the water and solutes that the body reclaims by tubular reabsorption are reclaimed in the proximal tubule region of nephrons. Proximal tubule cells have great numbers of mitochondria and demand a great deal of oxygen. Explain why.
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Drinking too much water can be a bad thing. As marathoners or other endurance athletes sweat heavily and drink lots of water, their sodium levels drop. The resulting water intoxication can be fatal. Why is the sodium balance so important
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The kangaroo rat kidney efficiently excretes a tiny volume of urine (Section 42.1). Compared to a human nephron, its nephrons have a loop of Henle that is proportionally much longer. Explain how this helps the kangaroo rat conserve water. img
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Increased sodium reabsorption at distal tubules ____________
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A freshwater fish gains most of its water by ___________.
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