Quiz 39: Respiration

Biology

Edward Jenner is the father of vaccination; he performed a daring experiment on a boy who managed to survive it. The fact is - there is no need for any person to perform the same experiment as small pox is eradicated now. However if a would-be Jenner wishes to perform the same thing today it might work the same way too. There are certain things to be considered before the experiment. Firstly, is the experimental model healthy, meaning free of all sickness at the time of the experiment Secondly, does the person have any history of any chronic sickness or is healthy Thirdly, his age, weight, immunity, family medical history and his general health needs to be considered too. If all these criteria are met then he may as well succeed like Edward Jenner. If not the would-be Jenner might end up in a jail.

Immunity is the capacity of the body to resist infections and diseases. This immunity is taken care of by three divisions- the physical, chemical and the cellular responses. Skin, mucous membranes, secretions of the body like tears, saliva, sweat, gastric juices all act as the physical barriers. As all A, B, C, D, E are correct option F is the correct option. Skin and mucous membranes are the physical barriers. When there is a cut in the skin only then is the person vulnerable to infection, but not until then. Mucous is another line of defense as it contains lysozymes that kill microbes that enter through the nostrils and other possible openings. Thus option A is correct. Tears, saliva and gastric juices are rich in lysozymes these are good soldiers. They kill all possible pathogens that try to enter through the eyes and mouth. If by chance they escape the action of these two they end up with the gastric juices that kill them. Thus option B is correct too. Urine flow has a washing action. It washes the path in which it flows and takes all the microbes if present and thus clears the passage. Thus option C is correct too. Resident bacteria are called the normal microflora of the body. When these are present in a good number, they compete with pathogenic microorganisms and thus restrict their colonization in the body. Thus option D is correct too. All options from A to C are correct thus option E is correct too.

Some of the resident bacteria can pose serious threats to life when left unattended. The mouth though seems unrelated with a heart disease can be one of the reasons for a heart attack. When food particles are left in-between the teeth overnight it tends to attract bacteria and the formation of plaque. These bacteria by chance if they enter the vascular system tend to form the same kind of plaque in the arteries and different blood vessels. When blood passes through these plaques the fats start depositing on them and thus it builds up gradually narrowing the size of the blood vessel and finally forming a block. When blood is restricted to the heart it can lead to a cardiac failure.

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