Quiz 33: Neural Control

Biology

Piercing the delicate body structures to thread the ornaments was being done since our ancient times. Earlier, thorns of some plants are used to pierce the skin. Now a day, several techniques are evolved to do this, but the sterility has to be cheque every time. Generally, tattooing was earlier done using a red hot metal wire , so it is obviously sterile but ofcourse it causes a lot of pain and discomfort in addition to adding beauty. If the instruments used to pierce the skin are not sterile, definitely the person may prone to infections. We can ask the professional to sterile the equipment before using on us, so that we can be sure that the equipment is sterile. Apart from this, the sterility can be tested by various chemical methods, in which we can observe the growth of bacteria and other organisms if the instrument is not sterile. Using new instruments every time keep away the people from getting infected by various pathogenic organisms and contaminous diseases like AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

The epithelial tissues form the outer covering of the body surfaces and provide protection to the organs. Epithelial tissues are of two types namely, Simple epithelium and Stratified epithelium. The given micrographs represent the following. (a) Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue This epithelial tissue contains cuboidal cells that are arranged over a basement membrane. This is present in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney, small glands, bronchioles, ovaries, testes, retina and also liver. (b) Skeletal muscle tissue Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, which form the flesh attached to the skeleton (hence, the name skeletal muscles). The myofibrils (contractor elements) are cylindrical in shape that contains distinct striations. Contractility is the characteristic of any muscle type. (c) Loose connective tissue It is also called as areolar tissue. Connective tissues play an important role in binding different organs and parts together in the body. Areolar tissue is a loose irregular connective tissue that is widely distributed throughout the body. It is found beneath the skin, between the muscles, blood vessels and nerves. (d) Adipose tissue Adipose tissue is a connective tissue, which contains large round cells and their cytoplasm is filled with fat. It is distributed throughout the body and offers protection to the body organs, particularly beneath the skin.

The fundamental unit of our body is the cell. Different cells make up different tissues together and separately. We have four types of tissues in our body. They are, 1. Epithelial tissue 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscular tissue 4. Nervous tissue. The cells of connective tissues are embedded in the extracellular matrix formed by their own secretions. Collagen and elastin are the secretions of these connective tissue cells, which form the extracellular matrix. Collagen and elastin of these connective tissues play an important role in binding different organs and parts together in the body. Loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue are the two types. Most of the connective tissues contain fibrous material, which serve their characteristic function. But the adipose tissues are non-fibrous connective tissues. Blood is a fluid connective tissue, and it contains fluid called plasma (plasma is the matrix), in which the cells of blood are suspended. All the other connective tissues are solid in structure. The fluidity of blood offers the functions like transportation of nutrients and oxygen and also the removal of waste products. No other connective tissue can do these functions. Adipose tissue is a connective tissue, which contains large round cells (embedded in collagen matrix) and their cytoplasm is filled with fat. It is distributed throughout the body and offers protection by serving as mechanical cuisine to the body organs, which is the characteristic of this connective tissue.

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