Quiz 24: Fungi

Biology

The zygomycetes are called as the fungus, which produce thick walled sexual spores. These spores are formed in the sac that is found at the tip of specialized hypae. Theses fungus is rapidly colonize by producing and dispersing of these non motile and asexual spores. These types fungus are live on decaying part of animals and plant waste. The example of zygomycetes is rhizopus species. The pilobolus is a fungus that is found on the horse dung. It contain dark walled spore containing sac at the tip of hypha. So, pilobolus is an example of zygomycetes. The club fungi are basidiomycetes, which makes sexual spores in the club shaped structure. Its example is Agaricus brunnescens. But pilobolus is a type of fungus that does not have club shaped structure. So, it is not an example of basidiomycetes. The sac fungi are ascomycetes, which makes sexual spores in the cup shaped, flask-shaped or globular-shaped structure. Its examples are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, aspergillus and penicillium. But pilobolus is a type of fungus that does not have cup-shaped, flask-shaped or globular shaped structure. So, it is not an example of basidiomycetes.

The mycorrhizal is a fungus and plant's root mutualisms relationship in which the fungus grow inside and around young roots. These fungus increases the plant's uptake of water and mineral ions and it also help plants to protect from pathogens. In return fungus takes some nutrients from the plants. Hence, the correct option is '(b) fungus-plant relationship'. The mycorrhiza is a relationship of fungus and plant. So, it is wrong to say that this is fungal disease of foot. Hence, the option '(a) fungal disease of foot is incorrect. The water molds are known as the parasitic or saprophytic organism that lives mainly in freshwater and moist soil. And barnyard is known as the area of open ground that is around a barn. So, mycorrhiza is neither a parasitic water molds nor a fungus of barnyards. Hence, both the options '(c) parasitic water mold' and '(d) fungus of barnyard' are incorrect.

The Polyporus sulphureus or Laetiporus sulphureus is a sulfur shelf fungus, which is parasitic type of fungus. This is layered, fleshy, fan shaped with the pinkish orange or orange on the top and white color is found below. These fungi live on the dead tree as saprophytes and living tree as parasites. In living tree these fungus lives as a network of cell called as mycelium. These fungi decompose and digest the wood. Here bracket, which is a reproductive structure are develop from mycelium and emerge from the wood. And in the underside of wood spores is produce from pores and these spores are release to produce new mycelium elsewhere. The mushrooms are grow and cause brown cubical rot on the root, base and stem of hard wood (cherry, oak and beech). In the starting it discolors the stem yellowish to red and finally the wood becomes reddish brown and brittle. And at the end the wood become like a powder.

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