Quiz 22: Protiststhe Simplest Eukaryotes

Biology

In developing countries, the sanitation and personal hygiene is poor. In that condition Giardia infection is very common. This infection is common at the age of 1 to 4 year at the time of caring of young children and also at the age of 20 to 40 that is result of travelling. In travelling it is caused by drinking infected surface water. While travelling in developing countries it is safe to drink carbonated beverages, fruit drink, water, alcohol beverage, pasteurized drink. And all are safe when served unopened and has factory sealed. The drinks from fountain, made from tap water and ice are not safe because they are made of contaminated water. While travelling in developing countries the food that should be avoided are uncooked food, salad, unpasteurized fruit juice, milk and milk products. The milk products that should be avoided are yoghurts and cheese. And the fruits should be washed and peeled by the traveler and the unpeeled fruits should be avoided. In travelling food should be cooked properly and uncooked or raw food should be avoided. The food should be served hot and once if it is refrigerated then when it is used it should be reheated thoroughly.

The notorious disease agents in tropics and subtropics are Trypanosoma and Leishmania. In which the domestic cattle and human are primary hosts for the mature stage. Here African sleeping sickness is caused by T. brucei in which tsetse fly are carrier in human host. And Chagas disease is caused by T. cruzi in South America and Mexico. So, the Trypanosoma cause African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease. Hence, the correct answer is option '(f) both b and d'. The giardiasis is a severe diarrhea that is caused by ingesting cysts of Giardia lamblia. And the malaria is caused by plasmodium vivax in which anopheles mosquito is vector that transmit the infective stage to human body. So, neither giardiasis nor malaria is caused by Trypanosoma. Hence, both the options '(a) giardiasis' and '(e) malaria' are incorrect. The ameobic dysentery is caused by Entameoba histolytica. The people are infected by drinking the contaminated water and the water is contaminated by its resting stage. So, ameobic dysentery is not caused by Trypanosoma. Hence, the option '(c) ameobic dysentery' is incorrect. In the given option both 'b' and'd' are correct. So, it is wrong to say that either 'b'option or'd' option is correct. Hence, both the options '(b)' and '(d)' are partially correct.

The algal bloom is known as the rapid growth of algae in aquatic ecosystem. The runoff from the fertilized cropland and raw sewage has major source of nitrogen and phosphorus that form toxic algal bloom. And by that the level of oxygen depleted in aquatic ecosystem and kill massive aquatic species. These harmful algal blooms are known as red tide, which has harmful effect on aquatic species, birds and other wildlife. These kills of lives are unavoidable side effect of the use of fertilizers in the cropland. It is important to stop the pollution that causes the algal bloom. There are following step that prevent pollution- • The conservation of soil stop mixing of fertilizers in water and stop pollution. • Do not dispose harmful chemical and medicine in water. • The plastic bag should be banned. • The leakage from the automobile also contaminates water. So, proper service of automobile is necessary. To avoid algal bloom it is important to dispose the waste generated by farms and cities by following methods- 1. The soil conservation is important to manage water pollution. The soil that contain harmful chemical by the use of excessive fertilizer cause water pollution when mix with water. The way of soil conservation is to prevent soil erosion, which is done by making bank on waterways and plantation. 2. And it should be avoided to disposed harmful chemical in sewage like- ammonia, bleach and paints. These chemical should be disposed in local recycling resources. 3. The use of plastic bag should be banned. Use of reusable jute or cotton bags in place of plastic bags, which avoids water pollution. 4. The disposal of medicine in water also create water pollution

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