Quiz 17: Evidence of Evolution

Biology

Darwin and Wallace perceived, natural selection is the outcome of differences in survival and reproduction among the traits. Natural selection can lead to increased adaptation to the environment as measured by the fitness which is the relative genetic contribution to future generations. Yes, even some modern scientists still call the traits of species as rudimentary or advanced. This can be explained by theory of natural selection as the species became more complex over the time. It is the outcome of population that vary in shared traits and the environmental agents of selection act on the range of variation and the population may evolve as a result of it. Only desirable traits are selected through the natural selection and became more complex from lowly forms to Man and then to spiritual beings. The body organization became more complex for survival to different environmental conditions. Hence, the natural selection explains the complexity among the species.

Aristotle and Alferd Wallace and some other naturalists are the early biogeographers. These are the early pioneers in biogeography. They started to identify the patterns where species live and relation, difference between the species. Biogeography is defined as patterns in the geographic distribution of individual species and also the entire communities. Patterns in which continents drift: Continents drifts are not a part of study for biogeographers at the early times. They concentrated on patterns in the world distribution of species and mainland and island biodiversity. Hence, the option a is incorrect. Patterns in the world distribution of species: The statement is true because, they studied some species like South American rhea, Australian emu and African ostrich. All these live in similar habitats and these are same in some traits and unlike in different traits. Hence, the statement is true but the only option b is incorrect. Mainland and the island biodiversity: Mainland is the place where all the habitats can live with the supportive environment conditions and the island is the place where only specific organisms can live at that climatic conditions. Biogeographers studied mainland and island biodiversity by observing the spiny cactus and a spiny spurge. These two live different continents and same kind of environment but both species store water in the fleshy stems. If all the plants are created in one place then how such similar kinds end up in the same kind of environment explains the biodiversity. Hence, the statement is not true but the option c is incorrect. Both b and c are correct: Yes, both the statements are correct. Hence, the correct option is d All are correct: All the statements are not true, only the options b and c are correct. Hence, the option e is incorrect.

Yes, the human coccyx is a vestigial structure which is left of the tail of some distant vertebrate ancestors but not a newly evolving structure. Coccyx is like some tailbones in many other mammals but we use ankle bones for movement but not the coccyx bone. This coccyx may be used for locomotion or support in some distant vertebrate ancestors. Through evolution this remained as a vestigial organ which originated from the ancestors. These useless body parts implied that they had not and species had become modified over time.

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