Biology Study Set 13

Biology

Quiz 8 :

How Cells Release Chemical Energy

Quiz 8 :

How Cells Release Chemical Energy

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Which of the following molecules does not form during glycolysis
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The glycolysis process involves the production of NADH, pyruvate and Adenosine tri phosphate (ATP). As glycolysis does not produce FADH 2 , the option (c) FADH 2 is the correct answer.
img Thus, the correct answer is
The glycolysis process involves the production of NADH, pyruvate and Adenosine tri phosphate (ATP). Hence, the option (a) NADH is not the correct answer.
The glycolysis process results in the production of pyruvate in the first stage. Hence, the option (b) pyruvate is not the correct answer.
The glycolysis process results in the production of ATP molecules. Hence, the option (d) ATP is not the correct answer.

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Each year, Canada geese lift off in precise formation from their northern breeding grounds. They head south to spend the winter months in warmer climates, then make the return trip in spring. As is the case for other migratory birds, their flight muscle cells are efficient at using fatty acids as an energy source. Remember, the carbon backbone of fatty acids can be cleaved into small fragments that can be converted to acetyl-CoA for entry into the Krebs cycle. Suppose a lesser Canada goose from Alaskas Point Barrow has been steadily flapping along for about three thousand kilometers and is approaching Klamath Falls, Oregon. It looks down and notices a rabbit sprinting from a coyote with a taste for rabbit. With a stunning burst of speed, the rabbit reaches the safety of its burrow. Which energy-releasing pathway predominated in muscle cells in the rabbits legs Why was the Canada goose relying on a different pathway for most of its journey And why wouldnt the pathway of choice in goose flight muscle cells be much good for a rabbit making a mad dash from its enemy
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In the given example, the rabbit exhibits an instinctive 'fight or flight' response.
The Canada goose is relying on the aerobic respiration pathway for obtaining energy for most of its flight period. This is the normal way of respiration for many life forms and occurs in the presence of oxygen, at a steady pace.
The metabolic pathway from which the Canada goose is obtaining energy will not be suitable for the rabbit which is suddenly dashing away from the enemy. The sudden burst of activity requires an alternate pathway, the lactate fermentation pathway. This pathway produces enough energy for the sudden, rapid muscular activity as required during a short rapid sprint at high speed.

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Fermentation makes no more ATP beyond the small yield from glycolysis. The remaining reactions ___________.
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Fermentation is a process that results in the formation of ATP as available from small amounts of glucose. The rest of the reactions result in the regeneration of NAD + , which is an essential coenzyme. Hence, the option (b) regenerate NAD + is the correct answer.
img Thus, the correct answer is
As the fermentation process regenerates NAD + and not FAD, the option (a) regenerate FAD is not the correct answer.
Fermentation process results in regenerating the essential coenzyme NAD + and not NADH. Hence, the option (c) regenerate NADH is not the correct answer.
As the fermentation process regenerates NAD + and not FADH 2 , the option (d) regenerate FADH 2 is not the correct answer.

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Suppose you start a body-building program. You are already eating plenty of carbohydrates. Now a qualified nutritionist recommends that you start a protein-rich diet that includes protein supplements. Speculate on how extra dietary proteins will be put to use, and in which tissues.
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In alcoholic fermentation, ______________ is the final accept of electrons stripped from glucose.
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In certain organisms and under certain conditions, _______________ can be used as an energy alternative to glucose.
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ATP forms in mitochondria. In warm-blooded animals, so does a lot of heat, which is circulated in ways that help control body temperature. Cells of brown adipose tissue make a protein that disrupts the formation of electron transfer chains in mitochondrial membranes. H + gradients are affected, so fewer ATP form; electrons in the transfer chains give up more of their energy as heat. Because of this, some researchers hypothesize that brown adipose tissue may not be like white adipose tissue, which is an energy (fat) reservoir. Brown adipose tissue may function in thermogenesis, or heat production. Mitochondria, recall, contain their own DNA, which may have mutated independently in human populations that evolved in the Arctic and in the hot tropics. If that is so, then mitochondrial function may be adapted to climate. How do you suppose such a mitochondrial adaptation might affect people living where the temperature range no longer correlates with their ancestral heritage Would you expect people whose ancestors evolved in the Arctic to be more or less likely to put on a lot of weight than those whose ancestors lived in the tropics See Science , January 9, 2004: 223226 for more information.
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Living cells of your body absolutely do not use their nucleic acids as alternative energy sources. Suggest why.
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Match the event with its most suitable description. img img
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Fill in the blanks in the diagram below.
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Glycolysis starts and ends in the __________.
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Aerobic respiration is completed in the _______________.
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In the third stage of aerobic respiration, __________ is the final acceptor of electrons from glucose.
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At high altitudes, oxygen levels are low. Mountain climbers risk altitude sickness, which is characterized by shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and confusion. Oddly, early symptoms of cyanide poisoning resemble altitude sickness. This highly toxic poison binds tightly to a cytochrome, the last molecule in mitochondrial electron transfer chains. When cyanide becomes bound to it, the cytochrome cant transfer electrons to the next component of the chain. Explain why cytochrome shutdown might cause the same symptoms as altitude sickness.
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