Biology Study Set 13
Quiz 3 :
Molecules of Life
Amino acids contain one hydrogen atom, one amine group (-NH ₂ ), one carboxylic acid group (-COOH) and one side chain (R group) attached to the central carbon atom. Thus, the option (a) + NH3 - CHR - COO - is amino acids. Carbohydrates are the organic molecules with the molecular formula (CH ₂ O) n and are literally carbon hydrates. Depend upon the number of "n," they are monosaccharides or polysaccharides. For example, glucose and mannose are monosaccharides, starch and cellulose are polysaccharides. Glucose is a monosaccharide, the chemical formula of glucose (n=6) is, C ₆ H ₁₂ O6. Glucose contains five hydroxyl groups in its structure, thus it is very much hydrophilic in nature. Thus, the option (b) C ₆ H ₁₂ O ₆ is carbohydrate. Proteins are the long chain amino acids which are linked together by peptide bonds, this is also known as poly peptide chain. Glycine is an essential amino acid. Thus, the option (c) (glycine) 20 is polypeptide. Fatty acids are the long chain carboxylic acids which contain carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen, and it contains one carboxyl group at one end. Fatty acids are of two type, saturated and unsaturated. If the long chain of carboxylic acids contain double or triple bonds in its structure, then it is called unsaturated fatty acid. If the fatty acid chain contains all the single bonds in its structure, then it is said to be saturated. Thus, the option (d) CH ₃ (CH ₂ ) ₁₆ COOH is fatty acid.
The organic compounds are the biological molecules of life. Compounds having carbon attached hydrogen (at least one) are said to be organic compounds, and they are the basic components of all the living material. They make up the other biological molecules such as carbohydrates (simple or compound sugars), lipids (fats, oils, steroids, waxes, phospholipids, terpenes, etc.), proteins, nucleic acids and nucleotides. Carbohydrates and lipids are the main source of energy and their metabolism give rise to the synthesis of glucose, which is then converted into ATP (adenosine tri phosphate), the ready form of energy. The excess glucose is stored in the form of glycogen and lipids. Proteins build up the muscles, nucleic acids and nucleotides are building blocks of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).
The organic compounds are the biological molecules of life. Compounds having carbon attached hydrogen (at least one) are said to be organic compounds, and they are the basic components of all the living material. They make up the other biological molecules such as carbohydrates (simple or compound sugars), lipids (fats, oils, steroids, waxes, phospholipids, terpenes, etc.), proteins, vitamins, nucleic acids and nucleotides. Chemically vitamin C is carboxylic acid, and is very much sensitive to temperature and pH. It is always preferable to take all the nutrients essential to the body in their natural form, as it ensures their structural integrity and functional integrity and also their absorption into the body. Structurally natural and synthetic vitamins are similar but, synthetic vitamins are formulated by using fertilizers, pesticides, etc. and they are fake vitamins. Our body can absorb only natural vitamins, and always the absorption is the problem with these artificial vitamins. So, I would like to prefer taking vitamins in their natural form only.