Biology Study Set 13

Biology

Quiz 1 :

Invitation to Biology

Quiz 1 :

Invitation to Biology

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A control group is______.
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A control group is a standard which is set by scientists as a reliable baseline data to compare their results with. This standard is compared with one or more experimental groups. It helps researchers to eliminate and isolate variables in order to achieve accurate data.
Hence option (A) is correct.
Control group do not give conclusive results. Results of control group are used for comparison so that we can get exact result from number of variable results.
Hence option (B) is incorrect.

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Match the terms with the most suitable description. img
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Emergent properties are those in which living things interact to become more complex when rise up in a higher level of organisation. It is based on concept that whole is greater than composition of its parts. E.g. animal is composed of cell, tissues, organ and organ system. All these interact in various to form a higher level of organisation and form an animal.
Hence, an emergent property matches with (c) 'requires interaction of parts that make up a new level of organisation.
Natural selection is a process of evolutionary change which comes through the production of various changes in each generation and differential survival of individuals when variables characters combine together. This occurs due to random mutation that occurs in genome of individual and passes to next generation. Organisms with best traits combination survives and reproduces to passes it to next generation.
Hence natural selection matches with (e) 'outcomes of differences in survival and reproduction among individual of population that differs in the detail of one or more traits.'
Scientific theory is a concept which has been well tested and accepted as explanation to wide range of observations. In scientific theory well sustained explanation comes from repeated set of testing and confirmation comes from observation and experiments.
Hence scientific theory matches with (d) 'a time tested related set of hypothesis that explain a broad range of observations and data.'
Hypothesis is proposed explanation or testable prediction for any phenomenon. It predicts what researchers expect to see. Tests are performed by scientists for their scientific hypothesis.
Hence hypothesis matches with (b) 'testable explanation about what cause an event and aspect of nature.'
Prediction is the thinking of researcher based on the hypothesis he had done. There is no test done for it. It is only the expectation of researcher which he predicts about anything.
Hence predication matches with (a) 'statement of what you expect to find in nature based on hypothesis.'

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Differences in heritable traits arise through _______.
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Mutation is the change in DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) sequence of genome. This DNA is inherited by offspring from their parents. DNA is responsible for various traits in living organism. Hence change in its sequence leads to difference in heritable traits in organisms. These mutations may be useful or harmful or result in formation of pseudogene. Sometimes it leads to many diseases.
Hence mutation is responsible for differences in heritable traits.

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In 1988 Dr. Randolph Byrd and his colleagues started a study of 393 patients admitted to the San Francisco General Hospital Coronary Care Unit. In the experiment, born-again Christian volunteers were asked to pray daily for a patients rapid recovery and for prevention of complications and death. None of the patients knew if he or she was being prayed for. None of the volunteers or patients knew each other. Byrd categorized how each patient fared in the hospital as "good," "intermediate," or "bad." He determined that patients who had been prayed for fared a little better than those who had not. His was the first experiment that had documented statistically significant results that seemed to support the prediction that prayer might have beneficial effects for seriously ill patients. His published results engendered a storm of criticism, mostly from scientists who cited bias in the experimental design. For instance, Byrd had categorized the patients after the experiment was over. Think about how bias might play a role in interpreting medical data. Why do you suppose the experiment generated a heated response from many in the scientific community
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A trait is _______ if it improves an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in the prevailing environment
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It is often said that only living things respond to the environment. Yet even a rock shows responsiveness, as when it yields to gravitys force and tumbles down a hill or changes its shape slowly under the repeated batterings of wind, rain, or tides. So how do living things differ from rocks in their responsiveness
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_______ is required to maintain levels of biological organization, from cells to populations, communities, and even entire ecosystems.
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______ is the acquisition of traits from parents who transmit their DNA to offspring.
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The smallest unit of life is the _______.
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The Olestra potato chip experiment in Section 1.6 was a double-blind study: Neither the subjects of the experiment nor the researchers who made the follow-up phone calls knew which potato chips were in which bag. What are some of the challenges a researcher must consider when performing a double-blind study
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Suppose an outcome of some event has been observed to happen with great regularity. Can we predict that the same thing will always happen again Not really, because there is no way for us to account for all of the possible variables that might affect the outcome. To illustrate this point, Garvin McCain and Erwin Segal offer a parable: Once there was a highly intelligent turkey. The turkey lived in a pen, attended by a kind, thoughtful master. It had nothing to do but reflect on the worlds wonders and regularities. It observed some major regularities. Morning always started out with the sky turning light, followed by the clop, clop, clop of the masters footsteps, which was always followed by the appearance of delicious food. Other things varied-sometimes the morning was warm and sometimes cold-but food always followed footsteps. The sequence of events was so predictable that it eventually became the basis of the turkeys theory about the goodness of the world. One morning, after more than 100 confirmations of the goodness theory, the turkey listened for the clop, clop, clop, heard it, and had its head chopped off. Scientists understand that all well-tested theories about nature have a high probability of not being wrong. They realize, however, that any theory is subject to modification if and when contradictory information becomes available. The absence of absolute certainty has led some people to conclude that "facts are irrelevant-facts change." If that is so, should we just stop doing scientific research Why or why not img
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Rarely can experimenters observe all individuals of a group. They select subsets or samples of populations, events, and other aspects of nature. However, they must try to avoid bias, which means risking a test by using subsets that are not really representative of the whole. Sampling error can occur when estimates are based on a limited sample rather than the whole population. Test results are less likely to be distorted when a sampling is large and the test is repeated. Explain how sampling error could have affected results of the potato chip experiment described in Section 1.6 if the experimenters had not been careful.
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Researchers assign all species to one of three _______.
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Many magazines are loaded with articles on exercise, diet, and many other health-related topics. Some authors recommend a specific diet or dietary supplement. What kinds of evidence should the articles include so that you can decide whether to accept the recommendations
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Assess your bedroom. Is the bed made Are the sheets clean Are socks and underwear folded and put away Are clothes strewn all over the floor Now explain what the bedroom has in common with a living cell.
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_______ is a state in which the internal environment is being maintained within a tolerable range.
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DNA _______.
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