A control group is a standard which is set by scientists as a reliable baseline data to compare their results with. This standard is compared with one or more experimental groups. It helps researchers to eliminate and isolate variables in order to achieve accurate data.
Hence option (A) is correct.
Control group do not give conclusive results. Results of control group are used for comparison so that we can get exact result from number of variable results.
Hence option (B) is incorrect.
Emergent properties are those in which living things interact to become more complex when rise up in a higher level of organisation. It is based on concept that whole is greater than composition of its parts. E.g. animal is composed of cell, tissues, organ and organ system. All these interact in various to form a higher level of organisation and form an animal.
Hence, an emergent property matches with (c) 'requires interaction of parts that make up a new level of organisation.
Natural selection is a process of evolutionary change which comes through the production of various changes in each generation and differential survival of individuals when variables characters combine together. This occurs due to random mutation that occurs in genome of individual and passes to next generation. Organisms with best traits combination survives and reproduces to passes it to next generation.
Hence natural selection matches with (e) 'outcomes of differences in survival and reproduction among individual of population that differs in the detail of one or more traits.'
Scientific theory is a concept which has been well tested and accepted as explanation to wide range of observations. In scientific theory well sustained explanation comes from repeated set of testing and confirmation comes from observation and experiments.
Hence scientific theory matches with (d) 'a time tested related set of hypothesis that explain a broad range of observations and data.'
Hypothesis is proposed explanation or testable prediction for any phenomenon. It predicts what researchers expect to see. Tests are performed by scientists for their scientific hypothesis.
Hence hypothesis matches with (b) 'testable explanation about what cause an event and aspect of nature.'
Prediction is the thinking of researcher based on the hypothesis he had done. There is no test done for it. It is only the expectation of researcher which he predicts about anything.
Hence predication matches with (a) 'statement of what you expect to find in nature based on hypothesis.'
Mutation is the change in DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) sequence of genome. This DNA is inherited by offspring from their parents. DNA is responsible for various traits in living organism. Hence change in its sequence leads to difference in heritable traits in organisms. These mutations may be useful or harmful or result in formation of pseudogene. Sometimes it leads to many diseases.
Hence mutation is responsible for differences in heritable traits.