Quiz 18: The Urinary System

Biology

The urinary system consists of kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra. The urinary system has three major functions. The first primary function is excretion. The second primary function is elimination. The third primary function is homeostatic regulation. Excretion is the removal of waste products. Waste products could be organic substances. The cells do not need these organic substances. In addition, these substances could be harmful to the cells. Several examples of organic wastes are urea and uric acid. During excretion, the waste products exit the cells. These wastes go into the extracellular fluids. Consequently, the waste products travel into the bloodstream. Hence, excretion is the process waste products go to the bloodstream from the cellular fluids. Elimination is the second major function of the urinary system. Elimination refers to the discharge of the organic waste products to the outside environment. After the completion of this process, the waste products are completely outside of the body. At this point, the waste products are not in the cells, extracellular fluids, or bloodstream. Maintaining homeostasis is another primary function of the urinary system. The urinary system determines the amount of water to be discharged out of the body. Hence, the urinary system regulates the concentration of blood. The urinary system also discharges several important ions. These ions are components of the blood plasma. Examples of several of these ions are sodium, chloride, and potassium. Hence, the regulation of the amount of ions to be discharged helps maintain plasma concentration in the bloodstream. The purpose of regulating the amount of waste products, organic substances, and ions to be discharged out of the body is to maintain homeostasis. Maintaining homeostasis is essential to the survival of an organism. Homeostasis enables cells to do regular cellular processes. Homeostasis enables the body systems to function normally.

The nephrons produce urine. Urine is excreted to the outside environment. The process of urine excretion is known as urination. Micturition is another term for urination. Micturition involves the contraction of the urinary bladder. Both the internal urethral sphincter and the external urethral sphincter must relax for micturition to occur. Hence, (1) matches with ( q ) 'micturition.'

The urinary system has several major components. The major components are kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra. Each person has two kidneys. One kidney is located on the left. Another kidney is located on the right. The kidneys produce urine. The urine consists of water, ions, and water soluble compounds. The urine travels in the ureters to the urinary bladder. The ureters are long, thin tubes. The ureters connect the kidneys and the urinary bladder. Hence, there are two ureters. One ureter connects the left kidney to the urinary bladder. Another ureter connects the right kidney to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder looks like a ball. The ureters deliver the urine to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder stores the urine. The urinary bladder has a muscular sac. This muscular sac could contract. The contraction of this muscular sac squeezes the urine out of the urinary bladder. The contraction of the urinary bladder squeezes the urine into the urethra. Urethra is a short tube. The urethra is connected to the urinary bladder. The urethra delivers the urine to the outside environment. Therefore, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra are connected into a functional urinary system. Kidneys produce urine. Ureters deliver urines to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder discharges the urine into the urethra. The urethra discharges the urine into the outside environment.

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