Quiz 15: The Respiratory System

Biology

The respiratory system is composed of air-conducting and respiratory portions, with the following functions: 1. Provide large area for gas exchange between air and blood 2. Move air to and from gas-exchange surfaces of lungs 3. Protect respiratory surfaces from dehydration and temperature changes 4. Produce sounds permitting speech and communication 5. Aid sense of smell by olfactory receptors

1. The nasopharynx is one of three subdivisions of pharynx. It is positioned between the nasal cavity and the posterior edge of the soft palate. It comprises of the upper region of the pharynx, and consists of the pharyngeal tonsil and the entry way to auditory tubes. Thus, the correct answer is (h)2. Laryngopharynx is a narrow tube like structure extending between the level of hyoid bone and the entrance to esophagus. It lies inferior to the portion of pharynx. Therefore, the correct match is (F). 3. Thyroid cartilage is often called "adam's apple." It is a prominent structure found at the anterior and lateral surfaces of the larynx. Thus, the correct match is (i). 4. Septal cells are technically called pneumocytes type II. Their function is to produce oily secretions called surfactants, which keep the alveoli open. Thus, the correct match is (c). 5. Dust cells are the roaming alveolar macrophages that patrol epithelium. Their job is to phagocytize the foreign particles that have reached alveolar surfaces. Thus, the correct match is (b). 6. Parietal pleura is the layer that covers the inner surface of the thoracic wall. It extends over the diaphragm and mediastinum. Therefore, the correct match is (d). 7. Visceral pleura is the layer that covers the outer surface of the lungs. It extends into the fissures between the lobes of the lungs. Therefore, the correct match is (j)8. Hypoxia is simply called low tissue oxygen levels. It places severe limits on metabolic activities of the affected area. Thus, the correct match is (e). 9. Anoxia is the condition in which oxygen supply is completely limited. Cells die quickly in this condition. Thus, the correct match is (a). 10. Collapsed lung is the condition resulted from the breakage of fluid bond between the pleura. It allows the elastic fibers to contract. This condition is called atelectasis. Thus, the correct match is (l). 11. Inhalation is the process of taking in the respiratory gases. This process is also called inspiration. Therefore, the correct match is (g). 12. Exhalation is the process of letting out the respiratory gases from the body. This is also called expiration. Therefore, the correct match is (k).

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