Anatomy and Physiology

Biology

Quiz 15 :

The Respiratory System

Quiz 15 :

The Respiratory System

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Identify the structures in the following figure: a) __________ b) __________ c) __________ d) __________ e) __________ img Label the pink and light blue arrows in the upper and lower portions of the figure to indicate the directions of the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
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Part (a) corresponds to the pulmonary capillary, the small vascular network that connects to the pulmonary circuit. Part (b) corresponds to the respiratory membrane, which lines vascular structures.
Part (c) refers to the alveolus, a small sac that provides the space where gas exchange can take place. Part (d) represents the interstitial fluid, the solution surrounding cells between tissues, providing nutrients and a pathway for removing wastes. Part (e) indicates the systemic capillary.
The pink arrows represent the direction and movement of oxygen, while the light blue arrows represent the diffusion of carbon dioxide.

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Identify the five functions of the respiratory system.
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The respiratory system is composed of air-conducting and respiratory portions, with the following functions:
1. Provide large area for gas exchange between air and blood
2. Move air to and from gas-exchange surfaces of lungs
3. Protect respiratory surfaces from dehydration and temperature changes
4. Produce sounds permitting speech and communication
5. Aid sense of smell by olfactory receptors

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The structure that prevents the entry of liquids or solid food into the respiratory passageways during swallowing is the a) glottis. b) arytenoid cartilage. c) epiglottis. d) thyroid cartilage.
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The epiglottis is a structure shaped like a shoehorn that extends above the glottis. The epiglottis folds over the glottis during swallowing, which prevents liquids or foods from entering the respiratory passages.
Thus, the correct answer is option (c).
The glottis refers to the narrow opening, through which air leaves the pharynx. Choice (a) is eliminated since the glottis is merely a passageway in the respiratory tract.
Choice (b) does not make sense because arytenoid cartilage is one of the three pairs of cartilage making up the larynx. The larynx is a structure that allows air to be inhaled through the respiratory tract.
The thyroid cartilage is a curving structure that makes up the anterior and lateral surfaces of the larynx. This eliminates (d) given that it has no structural component that would function in blocking food from the respiratory tract.

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Define compliance and identify some factors that affect it.
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What would happen to the alveoli if surfactant were not produced?
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What is tidal volume?
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The pharynx is a passageway for which two body systems?
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Define external respiration and internal respiration.
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Identify the structures of the respiratory system in the following figure: img a) __________ b) __________ c) __________ d) __________ e) __________ f) __________ g) __________ h) __________ i) __________
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The surfaces of the nasal cavity are flushed by what materials or fluids?
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Match each item in column A with the most closely related item in column B. Place letters for answers in the spaces provided. img
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What membrane lines the conducting portion of the respiratory tract?
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Mark breaks a rib that punctures the chest wall on his left side. What do you expect will happen to his left lung as a result?
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In pneumonia, fluid accumulates in the alveoli of the lungs. How would this accumulation affect vital capacity?
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Trace the path air takes in flowing from the glottis to the respiratory membrane.
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What are the functions of the pleural surfaces?
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Name the integrated steps involved in external respiration.
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When tension in the vocal cords increases, what happens to the pitch of the voice?
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What is the functional advantage of C-shaped cartilages in the tracheal wall rather than completely circular cartilages?
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List the two anatomical subdivisions of the respiratory system.
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