Anatomy and Physiology

Biology

Quiz 10 :

The Endocrine System

Quiz 10 :

The Endocrine System

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When a person's thyroid gland is removed, signs of decreased thyroid hormone concentration do not appear until about one week later. Why?
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The removal of thyroid gland may not produce signs and symptoms of thyroid hormone deficiency, till the period of 7 days after resection. This is because most thyroid hormones released do not travel free in the blood but bind to plasma proteins. When free thyroid hormone levels decrease, plasma proteins release additional bound thyroid hormones.
Thus, there is a large reserve of thyroid hormone and the effect of thyroid gland removal takes approximately one week to become noticeable.

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A blood sample contains elevated levels of somatomedins. Which pituitary hormone would you also expect to be elevated?
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Somatomedins , or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), are peptide hormones involved in growth. Specifically, they increase the rate at which amino acids are taken up and incorporated into new proteins. They are released by liver cells in response to growth hormone (GH).
Somatomedin concentration is particularly high after eating when blood glucose and amino acid concentrations are high. Therefore, elevated somatomedins in a blood sample would also be indicative of high GH levels.

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FSH production in males supports a) maturation of sperm by stimulating nurse cells. B) development of muscles and strength. C) production of male sex hormones. D) increased desire for sexual activity.
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A)Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone released from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. FSH is a gonadotropin under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus. FSH targets the sex organs of males and females. In males, it targets the testes and supports spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in the spermatogonia by stimulating nurse cells.
Thus, the correct answer is (a) maturation of sperms by stimulating nurse cells.
b)Muscle strength and development is primarily stimulated by growth hormone (GH), but other hormones contribute to this process. However, FSH does not have role in stimulating muscle and strength.
Thus, the option (b), development of muscle and strength, is incorrect.
c)Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of male sex hormones, such as testosterone, by interstitial cells in the testes. It is any such gonadotropin like FSH and has no influence from the latter.
Thus, the option (c), luteinizing hormone, is incorrect.
d)Sex hormones are primarily responsible for the desire for sexual activity. Testosterone is the primary sex hormone in males and estrogen is the primary sex hormone in females. FSH has no direct role in sex drive.
Thus, the option (d), increase desire for sexual activity, is incorrect.

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Identify the two regions of the adrenal gland, and list the hormones secreted by each.
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If a person were dehydrated, how would the amount of ADH released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland change?
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What are the three types of stimuli that control hormone secretion?
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What primary factor determines each cell's sensitivities to hormones?
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Identify the hormones of the thyroid gland.
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Identify the endocrine glands and tissues in the diagram on the right. img a) __________ b) __________ c) __________ d) __________ e) __________ f) __________ g) __________ h) __________ i) __________ j) __________ k) __________ l) __________ m) __________
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Define hormone.
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List four similarities between the nervous and endocrine systems.
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What effect would elevated circulating levels of cortisol, a hormone from the adrenal cortex, have on the pituitary secretion of ACTH?
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Match each item in column A with the most closely related item in column B. Place letters for answers in the spaces provided. img
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What signs and symptoms would you expect to see in an individual whose diet lacks iodine?
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Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH) stimulates the release of a) thyroid hormones by the hypothalamus. B) gonadotropins by the adrenal glands. C) somatotropins by the hypothalamus. D) steroid hormones by the adrenal glands.
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What effect would elevated cortisol levels have on blood glucose levels?
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Why is cAMP described as a second messenger?
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How would the presence of a molecule that blocks adenylate cyclase affect the activity of a hormone that produces cellular effects through cAMP?
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Identify the hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands.
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Removal of the parathyroid glands would result in decreased blood concentrations of what important mineral?
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