Quiz 6: The Skeletal System

Biology

There are 5 primary functions of the skeletal system: • Support. The skeletal system provides a framework for the attachment of tissues and organs. • Storage. Bone marrow serves to store fats while the calcium salts of bones serve as a mineral reserve in the maintenance of calcium and phosphorous concentrations. • Blood cell generation. Bone marrow within the internal bone cavities generates red and white blood cells that are essential to the body's circulatory and immune systems. • Protection. Bones serve as protection to soft and delicate organs within the skeletal framework. Organs such as the brain, lungs and heart are all located and protected by the skull and rib cage, respectively. • Movement. The skeletal system works in conjunction with the muscular system to provide the body with various range of motions.

Matching items in column A that most closely relates to items in column B: 1. Osteocytes (i) mature bone cells • Osteocytes are one of three types of bone cells. They are the most abundant type of bone cell and maintain normal bone structure by recycling calcium salts and assisting in bone repair. 2. Diaphysis (h) bone shaft • In a long bone (such as the femur), the typical bone structures include the central shaft, or the diaphysis, and the expanded portions at either end called the epiphyses. 3. Auditory ossicles (m) ear bones • The auditory ossicles are ear bones that are located in the middle ear. The middle ear is separated from the external acoustic meatus, a distinct surface feature of the temporal bone, by means of an eardrum. 4. Cribriform plate (l) olfactory nerves • The cribriform plate is located on the crista galli, a projection superior to the ethmoid bone. The cribriform plate is porous and allows for olfactory nerves to penetrate, thereby providing the sense of smell. 5. Osteoblasts (j) bone-producing cells • Osteoblasts are one of three types of bone cells primarily responsible for the production of new bone via a process called ossification. 6. C 1 (k) atlas • The C 1 cervial vertebra, also known as atlas, is the first vertebra of seven cervical vertebrae that extends from the head to the thorax region. Atlas articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull, thus allowing the head to nod. 7. C2 (f) axis • The C2 cervical vertebra is called the axis and is the second of seven cervical vertebrae that extends from the head to the thorax. Axis articulates with atlas (C 1 ) to form a pivot, thus allowing rotation for the head to shake side to side. 8. Hip and shoulder (c) ball and socket joints • Ball and socket joints are a type of synovial joint that provides for a wider range of motion and a combination of movements, such as rotation and circumduction. The articulations of the femur and the pelvis at the hip, and that of the humerus and scapula at the shoulder, are examples of ball and socket joints. 9. Patella (o) kneecap • The knee joint is a combination of three articulations. Two are between the femur and the tibia and one is between the patella (kneecap) and the femur. The patella serves as an attachment point for tendons responsible for extending and retracting the knee. 10. Calcaneus (b) heel bone • The calcaneus is one of seven ankle, or tarsal, bones and serves as an attachment point for the Achilles tendon, which itself originates from the calf muscle. 11. Synarthrosis (g) immovable joint • Synarthrosis is one of three functional classifications of bone joints. While amphiarthrosis joints are slightly moveable (such as the articulation between the spinal vertebrae), diarthrosis joints are free moving joints (as in the hip joint). Synarthrosis joints are immovable, like the bones of the skull. 12. Moving the hand into a palm-front position (n) supination • Rotation is a type of movement where bone articulations turn around a longitudinal axis of the body or limb. Supination is a rotational type of movement, such as when the radius and ulna rotate to turn the wrist. While palm-back position is called pronation, palm-front position is called supination. 13. Osteoclasts (d) bone-dissolving cells • Osteoclasts are one of three types of bone cells. They are the largest of the bone cells and are responsible for dissolving bone matrices via acids and enzymes. Thus, while osteoblasts produce new bone, osteoclasts dissolve them. 14. Raising the arm laterally (a) abduction • Abduction is an angular type of synovial joint movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body in the lateral direction. Conversely, movement towards the body and back into anatomical position is called adduction. 15. Elbow and knee (e) hinge joints • A hinge joint is a type of synovial joint movement. Its movement is bidirectional like the elbow, when it is observed to extend and retract. It is synonymous with the opening and closing of a door hinge. The elbow and knee are both examples of a hinge joint.

Human bones are identified by four distinct shapes: • Long bones, such as bones found in the arms and legs • Short bones, such as those found in the wrist and ankle • Flat bones, or the type of bones located in the rib cage or skull • Irregular bones, or bones that are more unique in structure and does not fit into the other categorical shapes, are found in the bones that make up the vertebrae

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