Anatomy and Physiology

Biology

Quiz 3 :

Cell Structure and Function

Quiz 3 :

Cell Structure and Function

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Define osmosis.
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Osmosis is the random net motion of solvent molecules across a semipermeable membrane from a lower solute concentrated area to a higher solute concentrated area. The movement is in the way that tends to balance the solute concentrations on the both sides.
Osmosis is also described as a physical procedure in which any solvent moves through a partially permeable membrane (impermeable to the solute, but not the solvent) splitting two solutions of different concentrations on the two sides.

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Describe the difference between the cytoplasm and the cytosol.
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The cytosol , also known as intracellular fluid is the gel-like substance found inside cells. It is divided into sections by membranes. For instance, the mitochondrial fluid divides the mitochondrion into compartments. In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is found inside the cell membrane and is fluid part of the cytoplasm, which also includes other organelles (but not their inner solutions and structures); the cell nucleus is distinct.
In prokaryotes, majority of the biological reactions of metabolism occur in the cytosol, while a small number of them occur in membranes. In eukaryotes, even though various metabolic pathways take place in the cytosol, others occur inside the organelles.

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List the general functions of the plasma membrane.
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The plasma membrane borders the cytoplasm of the cells, physically isolating the intracellular components from the extracellular environment. It is made up of two layers of phospholipids and controls the movement of various substances into and out of the cell, both actively and passively. In other words, the membrane is partially permeable and is capable of regulating what enters and exits the cell. Therefore, it enables the passage of materials and nutrients required for the cell's survival. Also, the plasma membrane keeps the cell whole and intact due to the specialized connections between membranes and extracellular components. Finally, the plasma membrane is the outermost part of the cell which is in direct contact with extracellular environment and thus it has sensitivity to its environment. It is composed of numerous receptors that help the cell to identify the molecules outside of the cell and respond specifically to each particular molecule.

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What is the difference between active and passive transport processes?
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Which functional class of membrane proteins allows water and small ions to cross the plasma membrane?
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During digestion, the concentration of hydrogen ions H + ) in the stomach rises to many times that within the cells lining the stomach, where H + are produced. Is the type of transport process involved passive or active?
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Identify the membranous organelles and list their functions.
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Explain why certain cells in the ovaries and testes contain large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER).
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When certain types of white blood cells encounter bacteria, they are able to engulf them and bring them into the cell. What is this process called?
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The cell theory was developed over many years. What are its four basic concepts?
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Cells lining the small intestine have numerous finger-like projections on their free surface. What are these structures, and what is their function?
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The study of cells is called __________.
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Define diffusion.
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What is meant by "selectively permeable," when referring to a plasma membrane?
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How does the absence of centrioles affect a cell?
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Relative to a surrounding hypertonic solution, the cytosol of a red blood cell is __________.
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The study of the structure and function of cells is called a) histology. B) cytology. C) physiology. D) biology.
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Match each item in column A with the most closely related item in column B. Place letters for answers in the spaces provided. img
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Which component of the plasma membrane is primarily responsible for forming a physical barrier between the cell's internal and external environments?
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How would a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the lungs affect the diffusion of oxygen into the blood?
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