Anatomy and Physiology

Biology

Quiz 1 :

An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Quiz 1 :

An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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What happens to the body when homeostasis breaks down?
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Homeostasis is the feature of a system in which elements and variables in the body are controlled so that internal environment can stay constant. The equilibrium between acid and alkaline (pH) and adjustment of temperature are few examples of homeostasis. In other words, it is an activity that preserves the stability of the living organism's internal conditions in response to changes in outside environment. When homeostatic regulation breaks down, whether as a consequence of injury or infection, organ systems fail to function normally. The malfunctioning of the organ systems is known as disease which can lead to the death of the organism.

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Match each item in column A with the most closely related item in column B. Place letters for answers in the spaces provided. img
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1. g- Cytology is the study of cells.
2. d- Physiology is the study of vital body functions.
3. a- Histology is the study of tissues.
4. j- Metabolism is all the chemical activities in the body.
5. b- Homeostasis is a constant internal environment in the body.
6. l- Cardiac is the muscle tissue of the heart.
7. n- Heart is a hollow muscular organ.
8. f- Integumentary is an organ system that contains the skin.
9. h- Temperature regulation is a negative feedback.
10. e- Blood clot formation is a positive feedback.
11. c- Supine is a face up body position.
12. o- Prone is a face down body position.
13. k- Diaphragm separates ventral body cavity.
14. i- Mediastinum is in the middle of pleural cavities.
15. m- Pericardium is a type of serous membrane.

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Describe an anterior view and a posterior view in the anatomical position.
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When anatomists talk about the left and right of the human body, it is the orientation of the subject that is considered and not the right or left of the viewer. When a subject is studied in anatomical position, the right of the subject's body is on the viewer's left, and vice versa. When anatomical terms are used for human body, anterior indicates the front of the individual, and is equivalent with ventral, except in the head. In the same way, posterior, denotes the back of the subject, and is the same as dorsal, except in the head. Anterior and posterior can also be used as correlative terms. Hence, the eyes in the human body are posterior to the nose, and anterior to the rear of the head.

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Describe how anatomy and physiology are closely related.
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Explain the function of negative feedback systems.
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Describe two essential functions of body cavities.
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How do vital functions such as responsiveness, growth, reproduction, and movement depend on metabolism?
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Label the three sectional planes in the figure below. img a) __________ b) __________ c) __________
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Label the directional terms in the figure below. img a) __________ b) __________ c) __________ d) __________ e) __________ f) __________ g) __________ h) __________ i) __________ j) __________
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Describe the various body cavities of the trunk.
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Why is positive feedback helpful in blood clotting but unsuitable for the regulation of body temperature, as with a fever?
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What type of section would separate the two eyes?
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If a surgeon makes an incision just inferior to the diaphragm, what body cavity will be opened?
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Would a histologist more likely be considered a specialist in microscopic anatomy or in gross anatomy? Why?
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What is the purpose of anatomical terms?
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Which organ system includes the pituitary gland and directs long-term changes in the activities of the body's other systems?
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Why is homeostatic regulation important to an organism?
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Define homeostasis.
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Identify the organ systems of the body and list their major functions.
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Identify the major levels of organization of the human body from the simplest to the most complex.
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