Quiz 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Biology

Metabolism is a term used for a number of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living creatures. It is responsible for converting the nutrients in the food into energy that is required for life-sustaining activities; such as helping the organisms to mature, reproduce, support their structures, and respond efficiently to their surroundings. Metabolism is consisted of digestion and conveyance of substances from one cell to another. When food is eaten, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in the food are broken down by some molecules in the digestive system called enzymes into smaller components such as amino acids, fatty acids, and sugars respectively. Besides sugar, amino acids and fatty acids can be consumed as energy by the body when required. Due to absorption of these compounds into the blood, they can be transported to different cells throughout the body. Once the compounds enter the cells, the enzymes inside the cells accelerate or control the chemical reactions of them. Throughout these procedures, the energy from these compounds can either be released for expenditure by body or accumulated in body tissues.

1. g- Cytology is the study of cells. 2. d- Physiology is the study of vital body functions. 3. a- Histology is the study of tissues. 4. j- Metabolism is all the chemical activities in the body. 5. b- Homeostasis is a constant internal environment in the body. 6. l- Cardiac is the muscle tissue of the heart. 7. n- Heart is a hollow muscular organ. 8. f- Integumentary is an organ system that contains the skin. 9. h- Temperature regulation is a negative feedback. 10. e- Blood clot formation is a positive feedback. 11. c- Supine is a face up body position. 12. o- Prone is a face down body position. 13. k- Diaphragm separates ventral body cavity. 14. i- Mediastinum is in the middle of pleural cavities. 15. m- Pericardium is a type of serous membrane.

Anatomy is a word derived from Greek which means "I cut up, cut open", is the scientific study of the body plan of plants and animals including their arrangement, tissues, and organs. It is a study about the structure and location of the different parts of the body, the substances from which they are secreted, and their connections with other parts, whereas physiology deals with the crucial functions of the body parts. However, these two scientific studies are closely correlated. Studying the structure of living organisms provides evidence about possible functions of various parts of the body, just as the study of biological mechanisms can be described merely in terms of their fundamental anatomy.

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