HDEV 3

Psychology

Quiz 1 :

History, Theories, and Methods

Quiz 1 :

History, Theories, and Methods

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Negative reinforcers differ from punishments in that
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Punishments are the things that are given to the children if they do anything wrong. Then the behavior will be reduced or removed.
Thus, the options (b) and (d) are not correct.
Operant conditioning is the process of teach the children a new things. In this they introduced the concept of reinforcement. Reinforces are the stimuli that increase the frequency of the behavior. There are two types of reinforcement.
1. Positive reinforcement: These reinforces increases the frequency if applied. Time out is one way that we can put the child in right condition by eliminating the misbehavior and praising for the right behavior.
2. Negative reinforcement: These reinforces increases the frequency if removed.
Thus, the option (c) is not correct.
Thus negative reinforcement increases behavior if removed and punishment decreases the behavior if applied.
Hence, the correct answer is
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There is usually a ____________ correlation between time spent studying and grades in school.
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Correlation as the name indicates it is the relation of one trait with the other and the influence of one trait on the other trait.
The correlation may be positive or negative.
Positive correlation indicates that if one behavior increased then there will be an increase in the result because of that behavior. Intelligence and grades obtained is a correlation study and the coefficient in taken in the range of +1.00 to -1.00.
If the intelligence is high then the scores or grades obtained in the school will be high. As the time spent in studying increases the intelligence thus increases the grades. So they are positively correlated.
Negative correlation occurs in the study between the criminal acts and the grades in the school. As they involve much time in the other acts rather than study they do not possess much of the school knowledge and have very less school grades.
So the blank can be filled with
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Dr) Liu was interested in testing the effects of violent television on 6-year-old children. She showed a par­ticularly violent episode of Power Rangers to one group and a short, nonviolent episode of an old Bill Cosby show to another group. She then observed the groups in the playground and measured their behaviors. What is the dependent variable in this study
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Investigation on a particular thing can be done by experiments to confirm the reason behind an action. Experiments reveal the cause and effect of the action. This can be done by taken a group of people and dividing them into controls that do not take any treatment and the other group are participants that take up some treatment.
Experiments are done by taking a hypothesis like violent shows in T.V make one aggressive. By this they measure the amount of aggressiveness and behavior after watching the violent shows.
Hence the option (b) is not correct.
Every experiment will have the dependent and independent variables. Dependent variables are the effects of the independent variables. In an experiment of violent T.V shows experiment the T.V show acts as an independent variable.
Hence the option (a) is not correct.
In an experiment of violent T.V shows experiment the T.V show acts as an independent variable and the effect of this independent variable is an aggressive or behavior in the playground is the dependent variable.
Hence the correct option is
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The ____________ Studies of Genius followed children with high IQ scores for more than 50 years.
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According to the ecological perspective, the ____________ involves the institutions in which the person does not directly participate but which exert an indirect influence on the person.
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Cross- ________ research combines cross-sectional research, longitudinal research, and time-lag research.
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According to Bronfenbrenner, the ____________ in volves the interactions of the child and other people in the immediate setting, such as the home, school, or peer group.
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Which of the following is an example of develop­ment occurring discontinuously
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More aggressive people are more likely to watch vio­lent TV shows. Which of the following is true about this statement
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__________ believed that a child came into the world as a tabula rasa.
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Freud theorized that the personality has three parts: the id, the ego, and the _______.
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Erikson emphasized ____________ rather than psychosexual development.
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­Which of the following kinds of theorists is likely to view development as continuous
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Which of the following is true of all experiments
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In operant conditioning, extinction results from re­peated performance of operant behavior in the ab­sence of
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In the bell-and-pad method for treating bed-wetting in children, psychologists repeatedly pair tension in the ____________ with a stimulus that awakens them.
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According to Piaget, ____________ is the process by which a person responds to new objects or events with existing schemes.
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Which of the following is the correct order for the stages of psychosexual development
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In a ____________ sample, each member of a popula­tion has an equal chance of being selected to participate.
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According to evolutionary psychologists, organisms can inherit ____________ -specific behaviors.
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