Quiz 27: Hiv Infection, Hepatitis, Tuberculosis, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases


The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a subgroup of retrovirus. It causes infection of HIV as well as after some time leads to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). It is a situation that affects humans as well as results in progression of failure of the human immune system. HIV has three distinct phases as part of its natural infection process. The primary infection begins within a month of being infected. This is followed by a period of clinical no symptoms or clinical latency. The final stage is when the disease symptoms arise and this is when most people become aware of their infected status. HIV is transmitted by contact with transplanted organs, blood as well as body fluids including vaginal secretions, breast milk, and semen. Safe sex, staying away from drug abuse, screening of potential blood and organ donors has considerably reduced the rate of HIV transmission. All pregnant women should be screened for the virus to prevent transmission to the fetus.

The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a situation that affects human. It leads to progression of failure of the human immune system. Symptoms range from myalgia, sore throat, fever, rash, lethargy, and lymphadenopathy. Antibodies are detectable in the blood after 6 weeks to 3 months. Hepatitis B is a viral blood borne disease. It is spread primarily by contact with blood and body fluids of an affected person. Hepatitis B virus is very resistant and is known to survive in dried blood and surfaces for over a week. Symptoms for acute condition include flulike mild signs to more severe jaundice, lethargy, joint ache, fever, and nausea. In acute conditions the virus is successfully eliminated from the body, although in severe cases it may necessitate hospitalization. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) include gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes simplex, and syphilis. Typical primary symptoms include dysuria, urethral/vaginal discharge, epididymitis, diffused abdominal pain, fever, chills, and lesions near vagina/anus/penis.

HIV or human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus. It causes the infection of HIV and after certain period of time, it turns to become AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency virus). It is found in the fluids of a person that has been infected with this virus. The fluids include vaginal fluids, breast milk, blood and semen. The scope of the problem of HIV that has been observed by the CDC (centers for disease control and prevention) is that it had grown rapidly since years. It is the issue of mortality and morbidity. It is one of the greatest health challenges in the public of the US (United States). It had financial, social and political impacts on the people. The infections related to the AIDS are opportunistic and are caused by the microorganisms that are present commonly in the individual's that are healthy. These microorganisms do possess threat and increases in number in the infected people. The infections could be caused by fungi, protozoan, virus or bacteria. Most common diseases are oral candidiasis, pneumonia, cervical cancer and TB (tuberculosis). STDs or sexually transmitted diseases or VDs (venereal diseases) are transferred from one individual to another through the sexual contact or oral sex and so, causes infections. There are no, as such, symptoms that could be seen by these infections. The STDs that are caused by the viruses have no cure. It is the major health problem in the US. The cases of the chlamydia and herpes simplex in the US are increasing. Chlamydia is the common infectious disease and so, is the gonorrhea in the second position. They could be either viral or bacterial. Hepatitis virus refers to a group of infections, which affects the liver that is cirrhosis of the liver. These viruses have different characteristics and causes, but, possess similar presentations clinically. The common types of hepatitis are A, B, C, D and E. The autoimmune diseases, certain drugs and alcohol consumption could cause hepatitis. The global epidemic, in case of hepatitis, occurs by the hepatitis C and B is a severe health problem globally. The WHO (World Health Organization) has estimated that the HCV (Hepatitis C virus) had prevailed from Italy, US, Japan and France. In US and Europe, Hepatitis C is common rather than B. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The transmission occurs through the airborne droplets of tubercle bacilli from the people those who talk and have pulmonary tuberculosis. By the estimation of the WHO, it is analyzed that approximately 1/3 rd of the population of the world is affected with TB. The Asia, worldwide accounts for about 60% of the TB cases and Africa accounts for about 31% cases. In the US, the rate of TB has declined over the years. The CDC had worked with the health agencies of the public for preventing the TB and improving the reporting and screening of the cases.

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