Quiz 22: Rural Health and Migrant Health


Rural areas are defined in terms of geographic location, population density and distance from an urban center. In another aspect, rural areas are defined as farm residencies, and urban areas are defined as nonfarm residencies. Some people define rural areas as a resort community located in the mountains. Rural and urban areas are frequently defined by several federal agencies. These two areas are of opposing lifestyles. These agencies classify these areas, according to the population density, metropolitan area, and micropolitan area. These metro and micro areas together are called core based statistical areas. Metro areas are core urban areas that have more than 50,000 populations. Micro areas are the areas with more than 10,000 and less than 50,000 populations. In terms of demography, micro areas are about 60 percent of the non-metro population. Micro areas have people with the small town lifestyle.

People in rural areas have poor health amenities than in urban areas. There are certain points that clear the difference between the health status of the urban and rural population. American living in suburban areas has better health measures than people living in most rural and urban areas of the nation. Working aged adult death rate is higher in the most rural and highly populated urban areas. Homicide areas are higher in large metropolitan areas while rural areas have higher suicide rates. Suburban residents mostly like to exercise during leisure time and mostly have health insurance. Urban and rural both areas have a high population that is without insurance. Teenagers and adults of rural areas have mostly smoking habits. Female victims of sexual assault are more commonly found in rural areas. The assaulting persons are known to the females; hence they feel hesitated to open these matters. Urban population children less than 6 years are commonly taken to the pediatricians. Children in rural areas have more injuries during farming procedures. In urban areas school nurses take care of the immunization schedule of the children during schooling. Such type of amenities has no space in rural children life.

The unique circumstances of rural areas can result in several issues regarding access to healthcare by the population. There are a variety of factors that influence the overall accessibility of healthcare services in rural areas, and they merit further examination. The primary factors that affect whether or not healthcare services can reach rural areas are availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability. These factors shall be examined in greater detail below. Availability refers to whether or not any healthcare services are even positioned in a certain area. This is primarily an issue of infrastructure and logistics, as healthcare services cannot be provided sustainably without the proper systems to support them. However, it may also be logistically unfeasible to allocated lots of money and resources to a sparsely populated frontier area. Accessibility refers to how easy it is for the rural population to access desired healthcare services. Factors such as the commutation time and cost to the nearest clinic, as well as the ease with which admittance to an institution is possible, constitute the accessibility of a healthcare service. Affordability refers to the financial feasibility of availing a healthcare service, and this is affected by both the accessibility and availability of the healthcare service in question. Poor availability means it is less likely for a healthcare service to be positioned at a convenient location, and poor accessibility will add onto both the monetary and time costs of accessing a service, making it less likely that people will avail it. Acceptability refers to the congruence of the nature of the healthcare services with community values. Due to the high levels of diversity between rural and urban populations, medical practices prevalent in the city may be met with hostility in the rural community. In such cases, it is important to either adjust such practices, or negotiate with the community on their appropriate use.

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