a.Demand curve will shift rightward
If the medicine to cure lung cancer is found, then the people tend to buy more cigarettes giving least importance to the health conditions. Hence, the demand for cigarettes will shift rightward.
b.Demand curve will shift leftward
Rise in price of cigarettes would reduce the number of cigarettes smoked by an individual per day; hence, the demand for cigarettes will shift leftward.
c.Demand curve will shift leftward
Increase in wage rate in the states that grows tobacco will increase the cost of producing cigarettes. As a result, the price of cigarettes will increase; thereby demand for cigarettes will fall. Hence, the demand for cigarettes will shift leftward.
d.Demand curve will shift rightward
With the discovery of a fertilizer which can increase the yield per hectare of tobacco will lead to an increase in the production of cigarettes with low cost. This will lead to a reduction in the price of cigarettes, thereby increasing its demand. Hence, the demand for cigarettes will shift rightward.
e.Demand curve will shift leftward
Sharp rise in the price of matches, lighters, and lighter fluid will cause a reduction in smoking cigarettes, as they are complementary goods to cigarettes. Hence, the demand for cigarettes will shift leftward.f.Demand curve will shift leftward
If a state passes law to restrict smoking in restaurants and public places, then the number of cigarettes smoked by an individual per day will fall. Hence, the demand for cigarettes will shift leftward.
Change in equilibrium price:
Since steel is a close substitute for aluminum, rise in the price of aluminum will cause the demand for steel to rise. As a result, demand curve of steel will shift outward. On the other hand, increase in the wage of steel workers will cause the supply curve to shift leftward. Under such condition, price level will increase and output will remain constant to obtain an equilibrium point.
Peanut butter and jelly are complement goods because the fall in price of one good would cause a fall in demand for another good; hence, these two are complement goods.
Private and public transportation are substitute goods because the increase in price of one service would increase the demand for another service. Hence, both are substitutes.
Coke and Pepsi are substitute goods because the increase in price of one good would increase the demand for the other good; hence, both are substitute goods.
Since the price of alarm clocks does not affect the demand for automobiles or vice-versa, hence both are unrelated goods.
Golf clubs and golf balls are complement goods because the fall in the price of one good result in a fall in the demand for the other good; hence, both products are complement goods.