Human Development 12/13
Quiz 3 :
The Prematurity Puzzle
In common, 10 percent of newborns are considered to be born early before 37 weeks of gestation instead of the advancement technology in healthcare and many efforts given by doctors since decades in preventing the preterm births. The premature or preterm babies are considered to be born with various neurological problems as their neurological development is not fully developed and born before the full term and fully developed neurological system. Therefore the preterm babies are considered to have neurological development disabilities. The other reasons for the rise of preterm births are considered to be obvious as: • The women giving birth later in life with their increase in age would easily lead to the risk of delivering of premature babies. The • The women who undergoes in vitro fertilization where they have high chance of giving multiple births. • The increase in caesarean sections done by doctors due to the early signs of fetal distress would also lead to preterm births. • The rupturing the fluid-filled membranes that protects the fetus would lead to the preterm delivery before the baby is fully developed in the uterus. • Some of the observations made by the doctors for the preterm delivery is the bacterial infections causing the mother to go for giving birth early.
In the ancient civilization, the people are considered to know the importance of the placenta though the scientific tools lacked in probing the rationalizations or the reasons. The custom of burying the placenta is practised around the world till today by various religious groups. The doctors had identified the capacity of guiding the fetus from a range of various assaults potentially as well to usher some common chemicals such as the oxygen as well as the carbon dioxide over the fetus and mother divide. But never suspected that the placenta was a significant organ that helps in the growth of the fetus and also interacting with the mother. In common, the doctors use to toss the disc-shaped blueberry mass to the incinerator basket immediately after the mother expels from her uterus. The placenta is considered to be the organ and is also a complicated as it turns to be one, therefore genetically the fetus is related to the bounding to mother's blood vessels as it helps in providing the chemical transportation regularly between mother as well as the developing fetus. The placenta helps in providing the transportation of the various gasses, nutrients and also various types of hormones from the mother to the developing fetus and to the mother from fetus that leads to the fully developed infant.
The placenta present in the womb of a pregnant mother helps in exchanging of various gases, the nutrients along with various hormones for the fetus to grow into a capable living infant. Therefore, the two hormones that play a major role in the development of the complete fetus are progesterone and oxytocin. The progesterone as well as the oxytocin hormones helps in the developing of nerve cells and protecting the fetal neurons from developing the over-excited and later dying. These hormones help in avoiding the over-excited stage reaching the peak levels of concentrations in the late pregnancy. The baby born before the full term is said to be as preterm baby or premature baby. The preterm baby would be observed in having problems in the nervous system. The oxytocin hormone is considered as the cuddling hormone as it helps in the emotional bonding. The oxytocin plays a major role in the pregnant mother that describes her behaviour and is known as the maternal behaviour and implicates in autism in the new born baby. In the children at young age, the reduction in such hormones would cause them, the difficulties in social changes as well as the behavioural changes and would lead autism. The autism is mainly seen in the babies born before 27 weeks of gestation. The doctors mostly observe and discover the hormonal imbalance in the blood of premature babies and would replace the missing hormones levels so as to avoid neurological problems.