Scientific Farm Animal Production

Biology

Quiz 30 :

Sheep and Goat Breeds and Breeding

Quiz 30 :

Sheep and Goat Breeds and Breeding

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Describe the ideal market lamb.
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A sheep operation mostly makes money from by selling lambs. The meat of a sheep which is less than one year in age is called lamb. But, mutton is the meat of a sheep which is more than one year in age.
Before selecting a lamb it is important to have a good understanding of the parts of a sheep. If one has to select an ideal market lamb attention needs to be paid to the muscle, length of body, structural correctness and style and balance.
The final objective of selecting a lamb is to produce a lamb whose meat is lean with muscular carcass. Hence, a lamb is ideal and complete if it has an above average muscling on its body and the right frame size and structure.
The producer can generate more income by selling the meat of the hind saddle region. Hence, the following are some features to look for in an ideal market lamb.
1) Enough depth and width in the loin region.
2) The rump should be leveled and long
3) Legs should be wide apart forming a square. But they should be plump and muscular.
4) Frame size should be above average or big. Small built lambs should be avoided.
5) Eyes and mouth should are sound without any deformities.
6) No pasterns and problems in feet.
7) It should have heavy bones.
8) Shoulder, breast and front should be trim.
9) Balance or eye appeal is also a feature to look for when looking for an ideal market lamb.
10) Lastly, the weight of the lamb should not be very heavy. It should have a manageable weight.

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Evaluate heritability of various traits and discuss the impact on making genetic progress.
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The first step of a breeding programme is selection and assessment. Looks or appeal of the animal is not the only criteria for selection. The animal should be selected as per the objectives mentioned below:
When a producer is selecting a sheep for wool production he should consider 3 things.
1) The quantity of wool - Quality is judged by looking at the density of the fleece. Density is measured by observing number of fibers per square cm.
2) The quality of wool - It should be very fine in its diameter according to the ISI standards. The staple length should be more than or equal to 3.5cm. The growth of the fleece should be uniform on the whole body of the sheep
3) The condition of the wool - Condition of the wool is assessed by observing the amount and distribution of yolk, existence of foreign particles and shade of the fleece.
Almost all characteristics related to wool are heritable. And sheep should be selected based on their individual performance which can bring out genetic improvement.
Selection and assessment of sheep for mutton : When a sheep is being reared for its mutton the traits one should see are symmetrical blocky body, balance of the body, thick flesh, body constitution and quality, weaning weight and number of lambs per gestation. All these traits of mutton sheep are also highly heritable.
Hence, selection of a parent with the right traits will bring a significant improvement in the progeny traits. The table shows the percentage of heritability for economically important traits.
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Compare reproductive characteristics of sheep and goats.
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715130-30-6RQ AID: 5766 | 31/10/2016
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Sheep and goats are two different species and they cannot be crossed to produce off springs. They both differ in their chromosome number. There are 54 chromosomes in a sheep while a goat has 60 chromosomes. The chromosome number makes them very different from each other.
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As they are different species, their reproductive features also differ in many aspects. The differences are as tabulated below:
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Describe the 90-day weight formula.
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Compare strengths of sheep breeds based on wool quality and breeding purpose.
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Describe an effective terminal crossing system.
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Compare goat breeds based on meat, dairy, and fiber type.
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Discuss impact of age, day length, and environmental factors on reproduction.
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Discuss the questions that should be addressed before beginning a commercial sheep breeding program.
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