Scientific Farm Animal Production

Biology

Quiz 23 :

Issues in Animal Agriculture

Quiz 23 :

Issues in Animal Agriculture

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What are the signs of junk science?
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In environment, the scientific knowledge is low and sensationalistic propaganda of myths is perpetuated through social media. This is known as junk science. The warning signs of this study are misinterpreted as the results recommend changes offering quick promises, food are described as good VS bad, simple conclusions are drawn from complex study and the study was not peer reviewed.
Some studies include recommendations ignoring the difference between individuals or among groups. In some studies, the results are interpreted supporting negative consequences from specific food item or diet selection. These criteria do not depend on data based research work but is emotionally charged issue.
Scientific principles are not followed and research facts are neglected. Therefore, identification of principles and the decision making is based on true relationships is much essential. Epidemiological studies are considered to characterize risk factors and their influence on disease occurrence but should not be assumed on own. Evaluation of dietary habits and changing the lifestyle habits are to be followed to improve health and wellbeing.

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Discuss the role of diet in obesity.
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Obesity is the major problem that needs the immediate attention. Obesity leads to several health consequences. Many factors are responsible for the obesity like environment, genetics and mainly intake of excess calories. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is mainly concerned about obesity and its related problems.
The caloric balance is a scale that measures the calories consumed and the calories spent that should be balanced to maintain the body weight. Disturbance in the balance might cause the weight gain or weight loss. The weight gain is caused due to excess consumption of calories than the calories spent for physical activities.
The weight loss is caused due to deficit in the calories. The weight loss is an imbalanced diet because the calories consumed are less than that of calories spent for the physical activity.
Balanced weight = Calories consumed ? Calories spent
Weight gain = Calories consumed ? Calories spent
Weight loss = Calories consumed ? Calories spent

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Describe management protocols that can be implemented to affect air quality.
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Air quality management in animal agriculture need to focus on particulate matter or dust produced by animals and manure, odor and gaseous compounds. The emissions in to the air by animals are influenced by composition of diet, housing type, flooring type and outdoor systems used to house the animals, manure management, feed storage management, animal density and weather condition. Odor issues are localized and mostly occur in animal handling facilities.
The gaseous compounds and dust are also localized but have some impact on regions where they are re-deposited. When the gaseous compounds react with water bodies can form into secondary molecules chemically and can be transported to the long distances. Compounds originated from livestock and poultry operations are subjected to federal regulatory action. These include ozone, dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead.
Air emissions are reduced by manipulating the diets to minimize the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. Manure treatments are to be employed to alter the volatilization of chemical compounds. Livestock industry has implemented management strategies and mitigation protocols to minimize the impact on air quality. Swine management alters the diet to reduce the bio-aerosols and green house gases. Poultry industry has improved the housing and ventilation facilities to maintain the air quality. Wet conditions are maintained in beef feedlot industry to reduce the dust and ammonia.

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Discuss land use categories.
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Explain the concepts of continuity and viability.
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How does food waste impact the sustainability of food production.
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Discuss the importance of valid comparisons and accurate risk assessment to effective problem solving.
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Discuss the history of environmentalism.
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Discuss the spectrum of perspectives relative to animal well-being.
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Discuss waste management protocols and effective manure management strategies.
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Discuss water use by animal agriculture and methodologies to improve water quality.
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What are the major animal well-being issues relative to each species?
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Define sustainability and the various factors that should be considered in making decisions.
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Discuss the concepts of trade-offs and polarity as they relate to making decisions at the micro and macro levels.
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Discuss the history of the diet-health issue.
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Describe the shifts in environmental policy and their impacts on agriculture.
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Describe issues and policies related to the federal lands.
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Describe the dietary guidelines and approaches for consumers to align with the recommendations.
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What are the challenges and opportunities associated with the goal of feeding 9 billion people by 2050?
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What are several approaches to determining risk potential?
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