Scientific Farm Animal Production

Biology

Quiz 15 :

Nutrients and Their Functions

Quiz 15 :

Nutrients and Their Functions

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Use nutrient composition tables to compare and contrast various feeds.
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Comparison between nutrient composition of selective feeds in diets of ruminants and non-ruminants enable to evaluate the dry matter basis and air dry basis of feed stuffs. Some byproducts are limited in specific regions and these include citrus byproducts, almond hulls, cotton gin remnants and soybean hulls are competitive ingredients in the region of their primary production. However, the transportation of these ingredients to other regions is a cost effective process that include costs of transport, shrink or storage.
For ruminants % of crude protein is considered and for non-ruminants % of digestible protein is considered. Ruminants include the cattle that require high amounts of all ingredients including the % crude protein and % crude fiber. The non-ruminants include poultry and swine in which minerals, vitamins and amino acids are accountable in the diets for measuring their growth.
The % of TDN is an important measure for ruminants along with the net energy for maintenance (NE m ) and net energy for gain (NE g ) and net energy for lactation (NE l ). In non-ruminants Metabolizable energy (ME) is mainly considered.

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What are the NRC feedstuff calculations.
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Feeds contain ingredients in diets of farm animals. The term feed and feed stuffs are used interchangeably and feed stuff is the most inclusive term. Feed stuffs also include non-nutritive products that are added as additives to promote growth and reduce the stress. They also enhance the flavor and palatability of the feed and add the bulk or preserve the feeds in ration.
National research council (NRC) classified the feed stuffs as dry roughages and forages that include hay, straw, fodder, stover and other feeds containing 18% fiber like hulls and shells. Range, pasture plants and green forages; silages like corn, legume and grass; energy feeds including cereal grains, mill byproducts, fruits, nuts and roots; protein supplements like animal, marine, avian and plant; mineral and vitamin supplements and nonnutritive additives like antibiotics, coloring agents, flavors, hormones and medicants are the various categories of feed stuffs.
Roughages or forages are used similarly and interchangeably. Roughage means bulkier and coarser feed. Dry roughages contain more than 18% crude fiber crude fiber is the component of cells wall and is not digestible. Therefore, the roughages have relatively low total digestible nutrients (TDN). The corn silage contains more than 18% crude fiber and 70% TDN approximately.
Feed stuffs may contain 20% or more protein includes soybean meal and cotton seed meal. These are the protein supplements feed stuffs with crude fiber less than 18% and proteins less than 20% are classified as energy feeds or concentrates. Cereal grains are the typical energy feeds with high TDN values.

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Calculate digestible protein.
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Some feed composition tables include digestible protein when the amino acid composition is adequately determined. The digestible protein is more typical value in swine and poultry diet formulation.
Feed composition tables generally contain crude protein that can be used in formulating the diets of ruminants. Digestible protein (DP) can be calculated from the crude protein (CP). The % DP and % CP are accounted on a dry matter basis.
Therefore, %DP = 0.9 (%CP) - 3

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How are fats classified?
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On what basis are vitamins classified?
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Discuss the importance of limiting amino acids to ration formulation.
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Compare and contrast roughage and concentrate feeds.
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Describe how the energy content of feeds can be measured and which measures are most useful.
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Compare the energy value of carbohydrates versus fats.
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Diagram proximate analysis.
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Discuss the importance of by-product feeds to the livestock and poultry industries.
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List the primary micro and macro minerals.
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Explain the importance of quantifying dry matter.
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Discuss the importance of quantifying TDN.
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Calculate percent crude protein and percent digestibility.
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