Scientific Farm Animal Production
Quiz 11 :
Artificial Insemination, Estrous Synchronization, and Embryo Transfer
The insemination done by the external objects into a female organism is called artificial insemination (AI). This the most extensive method has been using for production of farm animals and livestock. The advantages of AI are more production and control the reproductive diseases. Apart from the advantages it destabilizes the natural selection and pattern of evolution.
Testis contains a number of tubules, called semniferous tubules. In the walls of these semniferous tubules, spermatozoa are formed. Structure of a sperm cell: Sperm cells are the male gametes. Each ml of semen generally contains approximately 60 to 100 million spermatozoa, and each ejaculation produces 3 ml of semen. The structure of spermatozoa consists of three parts. They are as follows: • Head • Middle piece • Tail Acrosome is the elongated head region of the sperm containing 2/3 rd of the nucleus. The enzymes present in the acrosome are essential for the penetration of a sperm into a secondary oocyte (egg). Middle piece (of the body) contains numerous mitochondria, which supply the necessary energy for sperm motility. The active locomotion of a sperm cell towards the secondary oocyte is provided by its tail like flagellum, which is essential for fertilization to occur. The collection of semen is mostly done by using artificial vagina. This method used for semen collection in bulls, goats, rams, rabbits, etc. When the male mounted the artificial vagina is inserted into male penis and then the ejaculate is collected. Another method of semen collection is electroejacualtion.
The collection of semen is mostly done by using artificial vagina. This method used for semen collection in bulls, goats, rams, rabbits, etc. When the male mounted the artificial vagina is inserted into male penis and then the ejaculate is collected. Another method of semen collection is electroejacualtion. After collection, glycerol is added to the semen and then it is stored in the liquid nitrogen. Apart from the glycerol, we need to add extender, which usually contains antibiotics, nutrients that keep alive the semen. After addition of all these chemicals, it is thawed and stored in liquid nitrogen.