Quiz 10: Reproduction

Biology

The terms associated with anatomical positioning are as follows: The term "caudal" represents the organs that are situated toward the tail (coccyx of vertebral column). The term "anterior" represents towards the front. The term "cranial" represents towards the front or anterior. The term "posterior" represents towards the back. The term "dorsal" represents towards the back, whreas the ventral refers towards the back. The term "distal" represents away from the midline, whereas proximal defined close to the midline. The term medial determines towards the midline, whereas lateral determines away from the midline. The term inferior determines the lower or under, whereas superior determines higher or over.

penis, within penis urethra is present. Internal genital organs: Testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland. Functions of male reproductive organs are as follows: (1) Penis is the male copulatory organ, and urethra passes through the penis, which is "the exterior end of the urinary system." (2) Testes contain a number of tubules, called somniferous tubules. In the walls of these somniferous tubules, spermatozoa are formed. (3) Vas deferens stores the sperm. (4) Seminal vesicles are two in number, these two joins with the terminal portion of vas deferens, and forms ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory duct releases the sperm. (5) Prostate gland is a pyramid shaped organ of the male reproductive system, which secretes a thin milky fluid into the urethra, this milky fluid supply contain the nutritional requirements of sperm. In females, the ovaries release ovum, which enters into the uterus, through the fallopian tubes. It is comparable with the testis of males that contains a number of tubules, called "semniferous tubules." In the walls of these semniferous tubules, spermatozoa are formed. Clitoris is the erectile tissue of females; it is cylindrical in shape and is supplied with numerous vascular and nervous supplies. It plays an important role in sexual excitement. It is comparable with the glans penis of males. The greater vestibular glands of vestibule produce lubricating liquid during the sexual arousal. These are similar to the bulbourethral glands in males. Bulb of the vestibule is present deep to the labia, on either side of the vaginal orifice. During sexual intercourse, bulb of the vestibule makes narrow the vaginal orifice, which put pressure on the penis. This is comparable with the corpus spongiosum and bulb of penis of males.

Eggs are the major food products of poultry, they are rich with protein and fat and the quality standards for selection of eggs are determined by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). The major exterior characteristics that are used for grading of the eggs are soundness of shell like texture, shape and cracks and the clinginess of the shell. The interior quality factors are abnormalities, like presence and absence of meat spots and blood spots, condition of yolk, thickness of albumin and condition of air cell and size. The abnormal egg formation occurs due to hormonal imbalances and damage of reproductive organs. The abnormal eggs usually have blood spots, meat spots, double yolk eggs, soft shelled eggs due to lack of calcium. Small eggs or yolkless eggs are formed due to lack of fertilization. Due to improper diet, birds can lay eggs with pale yolk, and eggs with off flavors. The

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