Scientific Farm Animal Production

Biology

Quiz 10 :

Reproduction

Quiz 10 :

Reproduction

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Describe normal parturition.
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Parturition or childbirth (labor) is the process of expulsion of the foetus out from the womb through the vagina. Several hormonal changes occur during this period that prepares the mother for parturition.
The rhythmic contractions of uterus that begin at the top travel downward towards the cervix, and expel the foetus out. False labor is the periodic contractions of uterine muscles that causes pain in the abdomen but does not actually intensify and alter with walking, and no discharge of blood with mucous is seen.
During true labour, cervical dilatation occurs, and the discharge of blood with mucous is the clear indication of true labor. True labor causes intense pain at the back and significantly become worsen with walking. True labor leads to childbirth.

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Compare and contrast age at puberty, length of estrous cycles, duration of estrus, and timing of ovulation for the primary livestock species.
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The heifer and cattle's have 6-8 months of puberty, 14-29 days of estrous cycle and 12-30 hours of estrous duration and 18-48 hours of average time of ovulation. The Ewe has 6-12 months of puberty, 14-19 days of estrous cycle and 24-36 hours of estrous duration and 24-27 hours of average time of ovulation. The mare has 20 months of puberty, 19-24 days of estrous cycle and 4-8 days of estrous duration and 24-48 hours of average time of ovulation.
The Gilt and swine have 5-10 months of puberty, 19-23 days of estrous cycle and 2-3 days of estrous duration and 38-48 hours of average time of ovulation. The Doe (goat) has 4-8 months of puberty, 18-22 days of estrous cycle and 1-3 days of estrous duration and 24-36 hours of average time of ovulation. The heifer and cow has 24 months of puberty, 18-22 days of estrous cycle and 2 days of estrous duration and 18-45 hours of average time of ovulation.

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Describe the structures that establish and maintain pregnancy.
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In females, the ovaries release ovum, which enters into the uterus, through the fallopian tubes. Uterus or womb is a hollow muscular cavity with a thick wall. The walls of the uterus consist of three layers.
1. Perimetrium (Outer peritoneal layer)
2. Myometrium (middle muscular layer)
3. Endometrium (inner mucous layer)
During different phases of sexual life, the uterus changes in size, structure and function. After the ovum is being released, it reaches the uterus, during this period the ovum draws the nutrition from the uterus. So, the uterus becomes more vascular during this period. If the ovum fertilizes, the endometrium keep supplies the nutrition to the growing embryo.

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Describe the primary reproductive organs and their functions in male and female livestock and poultry.
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Compare and contrast gestation length, placentation, and normal fetal number for livestock.
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Compare and contrast the seminal characteristics of male livestock and poultry.
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Describe the estrous cycle and define its phases/stages.
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Define the terms associated with anatomical positioning.
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List the hormones and their roles in regulating reproductive function.
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Identify which species demonstrate polyestrus, seasonal polyestrus and monoestrus reproductive performance.
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Describe the effects of seasonal factors on reproduction.
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Describe several abnormal egg formation conditions.
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