Health Science Fundamentals

Medicine

Quiz 19 :

Measuring Vital Signs and Other Clinical Skills

Quiz 19 :

Measuring Vital Signs and Other Clinical Skills

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Name five factors that can decrease blood pressure.
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BP or blood pressure is the pressure (blood) that is exerted against the walls (inner) of the vessels of the blood. BP depends upon the volume of blood in the circulating system. Blood pressure depends on three factors and these are volume of blood in the circulating system, the force of the heartbeat and the condition of the arteries.
Sphygmomanometer is used to measure the blood pressure. BP is measured in mmHg (millimeters of mercury). The range (normal) of BP is 120/80 mmHg. 120 is the systolic pressure (pressure that exerts great force on the walls of the arteries by the heart). 80 is the diastolic pressure (least force exerted on the walls of the arteries by the heart).
There are the factors due to which, the blood pressure decreases or increases. Blood pressure increases by taking stimulants, doing more exercise, loss of elasticity in the arteries and anxiety.
Blood pressure decreases due to the inadequate flow of blood in the body's organs that can cause kidney failure, strokes and heart attack. The factors due to which, blood pressure decreases are hemorrhage, taking suppressants, shock condition, state of depression, dehydration and excessive perspiration.

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Ames is on oxygen and cannot breathe comfortably when you remove his oxygen mask. It is time to take his vital signs. He has a severe infection, and an accurate temperature reading is extremely important. What is the correct location for taking his temperature? Explain why. What information is appropriate to give Mr. Ames before you take his temperature?
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In the given case study, a patient named Mr. Ames cannot breathe without oxygen mask. He is on oxygen. When the mask is removed he cannot breathe comfortably. He is suffering from a severe infection as well.
It is important to take his body temperature reading accurately, but in his case it is difficult to take it orally as he is on oxygen. Before taking his temperature by other methods, it is important to give him appropriate information and make him relax at the same time.
The correct method to take his temperature is the rectal method or by aural method. Rectal and aural methods are good, when patients are as follows:
a) Extremely weak.
b) They are been given oxygen.
c) They are mouth breathers.
d) They are confused and unconscious.
Before taking his temperature, he should know that he should not take the temperature orally. So, the other ways should be considered. He should be relaxed because it is just the routine checkup for knowing the vital details. Therefore, he should not be worried.

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Medical Terminology -Define the following medical terms and explain why they are important when taking vital signs: arrhythmia, aural, axillary, Celsius, diastolic pressure, homeostasis, hypertension, pyrexia, systolic pressure, and thready.
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Medical terminology is used to describe the various components, parts, conditions and processes of human body. It is the language that describes the regular morphology of the body.
It is important to know the medical terms and condition for a medical line person as it helps in communication with the health care industry. There are vital signs in the body, which helps in monitoring a person's health.
The signs that are vital are the clinical measurement, which depicts the condition of the functions of the body of a patient.
The following medical terms are defined as follows:
1. Arrhythmia- Arrhythmia is a condition of the heart. It is a condition of abnormal rate of the heartbeat. Heart beats with an irregular pattern. It can be too slow or too quick.
2. Aural- It refers to the ear or hearing. There are aural thermometers, which are used for babies and children. They are accurate, easy to use, fast and safe. It is positioned in the aural canal of the ear.
3. Axillary- Axillary is related to the armpit. Axillary site gives a least accurate temperature. It is only taken, when the temperature cannot be taken orally, aurally or rectally.
4. Celsius- Celsius is a unit of measurement for temperature. It is also called as centigrade. It measures the body heat.
5. Diastolic pressure- This pressure (diastolic) is called the least force that is exerted on the arterial walls by the heart. 80 mmHg (millimeter mercury) is the diastolic pressure in the blood pressure.
6. Homeostasis- It is a balance state, when vital signs are within the normal limits.
7. Hypertension- Hypertension is the condition, when the blood pressure is above the normal range.
8. Pyrexia- Pyrexia is defined as the rise in the body temperature.
9. Systolic pressure- The pressure that exerts great force on the arterial walls by the heart. 120 mmHg is the systolic pressure in the blood pressure.
10. Thready- It is thin like a thread. Thread is related to pulse. It is barely felt like pulse.
As the definitions are self-explanatory that is why it is important to record all these medical terminology while taking the vital signs, as they are interrelated to each other. Body temperature, pulse rate and respiration have to be normal in a person.

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Safety Alert -Never forget the safety aspects of procedures. For example, when using a glass thermometer, caution the patient not to bite down. Brainstorm with classmates on other safety alerts you should give. Create a poster that illustrates some of these safety alerts.
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Name three factors that may cause a decreased pulse rate.
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Vital signs are recorded in this order: TPR. Why is it important that you record vital signs in this order?
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Blood pressure depends on three factors. Name these three factors.
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At what site on the body is the apical pulse counted? What instrument is used to count an apical pulse?
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Patient education -Write a short script for what you would say to a patient as you begin a blood pressure reading. Remember that many patients become frightened of the mounting pressure on their arm.
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What is hypotension?
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What does a pulse oximeter measure?
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What is a sphygmomanometer?
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List three examples of when postural supports or restraints should be used.
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List the steps for preparing a patient for a meal.
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List ten responsibilities of a nurse or nurse assistant.
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Compare the symptoms of dehydration and edema.
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List three factors that may increase body temperature and three factors that may decrease body temperature.
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You are assigned a patient and you need to take vital signs. Mr. Marks is an elderly man and seems very agitated and upset. You know that his agitation affects his vital signs. What verbal and nonverbal communication skills can you use to reduce his anxiety? Write a brief description of how to help Mr. Marks relax so that you can take accurate vital signs.
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Where on the body is the most accurate temperature reading taken? Under what conditions is a patient's temperature taken at this site?
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Why is it important to encourage patients to walk?
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