Quiz 17: Controlling Infection

Medicine

Infection refers to the attack on the tissues and cells of the body by the micro-organisms. The attack of the microbe on the body, they multiply, the counter attack of the body and the effect of the toxins that are produced by them are the phases of the infection. Localized infections refer to the infections that remains confined to a particular place. Their place of origin is similar to the place of action. There are many diseases that are able to change the place. For example, ankle sprain or an abscess in the finger. The localized infections are capable to turn into disseminated disease. Generalized infections refer to the infections has general symptoms, such as fever, variations in blood pressure and the feeling of having chills. There are many causative agents that cause fever, such as a bacteria or a virus. Therefore, the generalized reactions can be caused by anything, capable of causing the infection.

In the given case study, a patient named Mrs. Grey was admitted for a tuberculosis infection and restricted to transmitted based precautions due to which she felt isolated and locked away from everyday life. It is important to make her feel comfortable and create awareness about her condition and the reason about the precautions, which are taken for her well being. The healthcare professional should tell the benefits of taking certain precautions. The mood of the patient can be determined by her expression and body language and the way of talking. First of all, it is important make her aware about the transmission-based airborne precautions. Mrs. Grey is suffering from tuberculosis infection. It spreads through air. The microorganism travels through air and infect the other person as well. So, it is important to take the airborne precautions because it reduces the spread of airborne nuclei or dust particles that contain the pathogens. The patient should be kept in the separate room with specific ventilation criteria. Room door should be closed so airborne droplets does not travel in the outside environment. There are some other mandatory things that should be done. There are certain precautions for the healthcare workers while working with the patients suffering from tuberculosis. Some of them are as follows: 1. The nurse should wear respiratory protection masks. 2. They nurse should wash the hands before and after leaving the room of the patient. 3. The patient should be kept in a private room to avoid the spread of infection to other people.

Health care sector deals with medical and health care good services. It includes hospital management, laboratory works, medical products etc. Health care environment contains number of microorganisms. It carries by patients, visitors and staff. It is important to inhibit the spread of pathogenic microorganisms for a better environment. In the given situation, a patient should be informed the precautionary measures to control infection in the health care environment on daily basis. It should be explained to him in simple terms, so that he can follow some precautions. Infection can be spread by different ways such as by physical contact, by living in the same surrounding with patient as bacteria travels through air so it can infect indirectly. Disease can transfer through food and water. It can be occur due to the poor hygiene of a person. Cleanliness is the most important thing that should be maintained. The hands should be washed before and after having meal. The hands should be washed after touching any infected equipment with soap from dispenser because hand washing is the best way to reduce the spread of microorganisms. For the maintenance of cleanliness, clean clothes should be worn. At the time of cold, tissues should be used instead of handkerchief. This is because tissue papers are disposable and used only one while handkerchief is used again and again. If soap is not available, use sanitizers should be used and they also kill microorganisms. Dry paper towel should be used to clean your hands. During sneezing and coughing, the face should always be covered with tissue paper to avoid spreading the germs and dispose of them properly. Prevention is better than cure.