Quiz 6: Social Groups, Organizations, and Social Institutions

Sociology

Social groups: A social group is a work group or a friends group that provides a sense of belonging and a common identity. Social groups consist of two or more number of people and they interact with one another. Some social groups are highly stable and organized while other groups are temporary and fluid. Some of the examples of social groups are families, friends, religious congregations, work groups, athletic teams, organizations, and clubs. Statement: Out-group is a group of people who are treated and viewed negatively because their beliefs and values are different from the in-group people. Reference group is a group of people who help in influencing the values, attitudes, and behavior of other groups or individuals. Secondary group is usually a formal, large, temporary, and impersonal group of people who are involved in performing a specific activity or a goal. Hence, (a), (b), and (c) are incorrect. Justification: The primary group is comparatively a small group of people than the secondary group. In the primary group, the people will have face-to-face interaction with each other for an extended period. In primary groups, the members are supportive, tolerant, and thoughtful. Hence, option img is correct.

Social groups: A social group is a work group or a friends group that provides a sense of belonging and a common identity. Social groups consist of two or more number of people and they interact with one another. Some social groups are highly stable and organized while other groups are temporary and fluid. Some of the examples of social groups are families, friends, religious congregations, work groups, athletic teams, organizations, and clubs. Statement: Many studies have shown that group pressure has influenced a number of individuals. Person SM, Person IJ, Person SA, and Person PZ conducted the four best studies about group conformity. Person SA's research is about the test on visual judgment. Person PZ's research studied the prison life and he proved the change in behavior of individuals due to group influence. Person IJ's research produced a theory known as "groupthink". Hence, (a), (c), and (d) are incorrect. Justification: Person SM's research speaks about the experiment on obedience. Person SM conducted an experimental trial in which one applicant was the teacher and another was the learner. Hence, option img is correct.

Formal organizations: A formal organization is a structured and complex secondary group that is created intentionally to accomplish specific goals in a well-organized manner. Statements: According to Person MW, some of the ideal characteristics of a productive and efficient bureaucracy are as follows: • High degree of specialization and division of labor • Explicit written regulations and rules • Qualifications-based employment Hence, (a), (b), and (c) are incorrect. Justification: Person MW has recognized six key characteristics of the bureaucracy. The key characteristics are as follows: • Hierarchy of authority • Impersonality • High degree of division and specialization of labor • Employment based on qualifications • Explicit written regulations and rules • Separation of ownership and work Hence, the option of decentralized authority is not a key characteristic of productive and efficient bureaucracy. Hence, option img is correct.