Quiz 16: Urinalysis, Body Fluids, and Other Specimens

Medicine

A blood sample is usually extracted from the vein in the arm of the patient. It is collected for performing multiple laboratory tests such as complete blood count, glucose test, and cholesterol test. It is also used for assessing certain genetic conditions and the general state of the health. The other types of specimen, which can be requested by the healthcare worker to transport to the clinical laboratory are sputum specimen, random urine specimen, fecal specimen, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, and amniotic fluid are also requested by the health care professional for testing in order to diagnose the illness of the patient. Sputum specimen is used in the analysis for diagnosing lower respiratory infections. The urine samples are used for diagnosing the urinary tract infection and kidney infection. The CSF specimen is used for diagnosing the diseases affecting the brain and the spinal cord. The fecal specimen is collected for diagnosing cholera, typhoid, food poisoning and colitis.

Cystic fibrosis is the genetic disorder of lungs and it is fatal if not diagnosed. The disease is mainly due to genetic mutation in CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene. This leads to various physiological problems in the patient. Being genetic, the signs and symptoms of the disease are observed very frequently. The earliest sign of the disease is the salty skin. Mainly the infant and children can easily be confirmed for the disease by detection of salts on the skin. As the age proceeds, the patient starts facing recurrent infection of the lungs such as coughing. Thus, diagnosis of the disease is important by selecting right specimen. The diagnosis of the diseases can be confirmed, if the specimen is collected from the site of infection. Inflammation of the pericardium starts suddenly and is very painful. Fluid and blood components like white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) enter in the pericardium sac and heart beat becomes fast. Hence, the options a, c and d are incorrect. In the given case, sweat chloride is the sure specimen to confirm the disease in infants and children. While the specimen such as CSF, and pericardial fluid is used to study different etiology cases. Hence, the correct answer is option img .

The serous fluid, which is secreted by the pericardium's serous layer into the pericardial cavity, is known as the pericardial fluid. The pericardial fluid shares the resemblance with the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) of the brain. The pericardial fluid helps in reducing the friction within the pericardium. It lubricates the epicardial surfaces to allow the membranes to glide over one another with each heartbeat. The pericardial fluid is composed of the lymphocytes, protein and lactate dehydrogenase. The fluid found in the membranes of the thoracic cavity, around the lungs and between the layers of the pleura is called as the pleural fluid. It is a thin, translucent fluid, which fills the cavity between the visceral as well as the parietal layers surrounding the lungs. It lubricates the spaces between the pleura to allow the pleura to glide smoothly during the expiration and inspiration. The major differences between the pericardial fluid and pleural fluid are given below: 1. The pleural fluid found within the cavity between the visceral as well as the parietal layers surrounding the lungs, whereas the parietal fluid found within the pericardial cavity. 2. The pericardial fluid lubricates the epicardial surfaces to allow the membranes to glide with each heartbeat, whereas the pleural fluid lubricates the spaces between the pleura to allow the pleura to glide smoothly during the expiration and inspiration.