Quiz 13: Pediatric and Geriatric Procedures
A blood type can be defined as a classification of blood that is based on the antigenic substances present or absent on the surface of RBCs (red blood cells). These antigens can be classified under proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids. Blood types are inherited. The most common type of blood groups is ABO blood group and Rh group. The instruments used for collection of blood are as follows: 1. Phlebotomy is defined as the method for making an incision inside a vein with the help of a needle. This method is called as venipuncture. A venipuncture device is capped temporarily and is kept patent while using the medication lock. 2. The venipuncture device is a device that is used for assessment of peripheral venous. It comes in a variety of gauges as well as diameters. The larger will be the number of gauge the smaller will be its diameter. Lidocaine is used as a local tissue anesthetic. It is administered for the treatment of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia only when amiodarone is ineffective.
Heel stick is the minimal invasion as well easily accessible method of obtaining blood samples in capillary. It is performed in numerous laboratory tests, mainly in glucose level and newborn screening. The heel stick sampling method helps in preservation of venous access for the future IV (intravenous lines). In neonates, venipuncture results in few punctures and low pain as compared to the heel stick. The test must not be performed when an infection, injury, edema, and anomaly is found in the heel sampling area. Hence, the options a, c and d are incorrect. The most preferred site for heel stick is considered to be the lateral or medial section of the heel. It is the most common method for drawing blood, of a newborn. The test is performed just before the baby is ready to leave the hospital. Hence, the correct answer is option .
The work of puncturing the vein is to withdraw blood for diagnosis of various tests. It should be done by the experts in the pathology. Medical assistant helps in consulting and assist medical help. Phlebotomy is a procedure of puncturing any vein to draw out some blood or to introduce any fluid. This is an art of taking out blood for the further tests. The specimen should not be collected from an area, which has the greatest amount drainage. This is because wound drainage contains mixed and non-viable microorganisms that should produce erroneous results. Infants being in their oral stage development are attached to those persons who yield them oral pleasure. The bond of attachment will be more secure if the mother is generous as well as relaxed while the time of her feeding. According to Freud, the bonding between the infant and the parent is critical. Examination is the second step where the reports of pathology are studied. Post examination is last process where the diagnosis is done and the condition is known. The nurse should not collect the specimen by debriding the skin, which causes discomfort to the client. A specimen can be ideally collected without debriding the skin.