Phlebotomy Handbook

Medicine

Quiz 4 :

Infection Control

Quiz 4 :

Infection Control

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The following may have one or more answers. Which chemical is most effective as an antiseptic for cleaning the blood collection site?
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The collection of blood from blood donors for transfusion may become infected at the time of storage, collection, or transfusion. Blood contagion can give rise to bacteremia, major illness, or even death of the receiver of blood. The skin on the donor arm is one of the main bases of infection, when the blood is taken from the donors. Thus, it is necessary to sanitize the arm with an antiseptic first.
Elemental iodine is applied as a disinfectant as the water-soluble triiodide anion, or as the element. The antimicrobial activity of iodine is fast and functions at low amounts, and thus it has application in operation theatres. Iodopovidone, also known as povidone-iodine, is an antiseptic applied for skin disinfection after and before the surgery.
It may be applied both to disinfect the hands of the healthcare providers, and the skin of the patient. It can also be applied for slight wounds, and is used as a liquid or powder to the skin. Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant, which is used to sterilize the surgical instruments, and is applied as skin disinfection before the surgery.
Hence, the options a, b and c are incorrect.
Ethyl alcohol or ethanol is the most efficient antiseptic, which is used for cleaning the blood collection site. Both one and two-step alcohol based procedures are generally used in the procedure. Ethanol helps in killing microorganisms, by dissolving their lipids and denaturing their proteins, and is efficient against most fungi and bacteria, and various viruses.
Hence, the correct answer is option img .

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The following may have one or more answers. Which of the following is the most effective replacement for latex gloves?
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Medical gloves are the non-reusable gloves applied at the time of medical procedures and examinations, which help in avoiding cross-contamination between the patients and caregivers. The medical gloves are prepared from distinct polymers that involve nitrile rubber, neoprene, latex, and polyvinyl chloride. They come powdered with cornstarch to grease the gloves, or unpowdered.
Low-powder latex gloves are the latex gloves comprising of small quantities of cornstarch powder, which helps in lubricating the gloves. Nitrile gloves are manufactured from synthetic rubber, and are best substitute when latex allergies are an issue.
They are the superior gloves when it comes to puncture resistance. They are generally considered as medical grade. Cotton gloves or fabric gloves, helps in keeping hands protected and clean against scrapes, but may not be sufficiently strong to handle work with sharp or rough resources. However, the above gloves are not the most operative substitute for latex gloves.
Hence, the options a, c and d are incorrect.
Due to enhanced latex allergy rate amongst the health care givers, and in the common population, the gloves manufactured from non-latex substances are nowadays broadly used. For example, the high-grade isoprene gloves are used as a substitute, as they have the same chemical composition as natural latex rubber. These gloves are also known as hypoallergenic latex gloves.
Hence, the correct answer is option img .

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The following may have one or more answers. Gloves, gown, and mask are examples of
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Personal protective equipment (PPE) is equipment, which helps in safeguarding the user against safety or health threats at work. It may include substances, like safety helmets, eye protection, safety harnesses and safety footwear, and high-visibility clothing. I also constitute RPE (respiratory protective equipment).
Work practice controls are the methods, which minimize the probability of exposure, by changing the mode in which a task is taking place. For example, recapping of needles, and avoiding mouth pipetting. Engineering controls, involves modifications or designs to plants, processes, and ventilation system, which minimize the exposure source.
Administrative controls refer to the controls, which modifies the way the task is performed, involving policies and other rules, and timing of work. It includes work methods, like operating and standard processes, which further includes housekeeping, training, personal hygiene methods, and equipment maintenance.
Hence, the options a, c and d are incorrect.
Based on OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) criteria for occupational contact with blood-borne pathogens, the PPE (personal protective equipment) are apparatus for face and eye protection, respiratory protection, and head and foot protection. It includes equipments, like fluid-resistant gown, respirator, goggles, gown and mask.
Hence, the correct answer is option img .

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The following may have one or more answers. What is/are the primary function(s) of isolation procedures?
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The following may have one or more answers. Airborne precautions may be required for patients with infections such as
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The following may have one or more answers. Nurses, physicians, and other health care workers are responsible for changing their gloves:
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The following may have one or more answers. For health care workers, most occupational exposure to HIV occurs following:
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The following may have one or more answers. When collecting blood from a person with AIDS in his or her home, the best way to dispose of the contaminated needle and holder is to
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The following may have one or more answers. Safe working conditions in the health care environment are federally regulated by
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The following may have one or more answers. According to the OSHA standards for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which of the following is NOT personal protective equipment?
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