Quiz 4: Infection Control
Medical gloves are the non-reusable gloves applied at the time of medical procedures and examinations, which help in avoiding cross-contamination between the patients and caregivers. The medical gloves are prepared from distinct polymers that involve nitrile rubber, neoprene, latex, and polyvinyl chloride. They come powdered with cornstarch to grease the gloves, or unpowdered. Low-powder latex gloves are the latex gloves comprising of small quantities of cornstarch powder, which helps in lubricating the gloves. Nitrile gloves are manufactured from synthetic rubber, and are best substitute when latex allergies are an issue. They are the superior gloves when it comes to puncture resistance. They are generally considered as medical grade. Cotton gloves or fabric gloves, helps in keeping hands protected and clean against scrapes, but may not be sufficiently strong to handle work with sharp or rough resources. However, the above gloves are not the most operative substitute for latex gloves. Hence, the options a, c and d are incorrect. Due to enhanced latex allergy rate amongst the health care givers, and in the common population, the gloves manufactured from non-latex substances are nowadays broadly used. For example, the high-grade isoprene gloves are used as a substitute, as they have the same chemical composition as natural latex rubber. These gloves are also known as hypoallergenic latex gloves. Hence, the correct answer is option .
In health care centers, isolation signifies one of the many measures, which can be taken to devise the control of infection. It is followed to inhibit the spread of contagious diseases from a patient to health care workers, other patients, and visitors, or from outsiders to a specific patient. Many forms of isolation prevail, in some of which contact processes are changed, and others in which the patient is kept in isolation from others. These procedures are devised and revised, by the (USCDC) United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Many stages of patient isolation constitute an application of one or more officially defined precaution. Keeping the hospital clean, and providing protective surrounding, and protecting the public from disease, are not the main functions of isolation procedures. Therefore, these options are not relevant to the given question. Hence, the options a, c and d are incorrect. The main function of isolation procedures is to inhibit spreading of contagious diseases. Hence, the correct answer is option .
The collection of blood from blood donors for transfusion may become infected at the time of storage, collection, or transfusion. Blood contagion can give rise to bacteremia, major illness, or even death of the receiver of blood. The skin on the donor arm is one of the main bases of infection, when the blood is taken from the donors. Thus, it is necessary to sanitize the arm with an antiseptic first. Elemental iodine is applied as a disinfectant as the water-soluble triiodide anion, or as the element. The antimicrobial activity of iodine is fast and functions at low amounts, and thus it has application in operation theatres. Iodopovidone, also known as povidone-iodine, is an antiseptic applied for skin disinfection after and before the surgery. It may be applied both to disinfect the hands of the healthcare providers, and the skin of the patient. It can also be applied for slight wounds, and is used as a liquid or powder to the skin. Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant, which is used to sterilize the surgical instruments, and is applied as skin disinfection before the surgery. Hence, the options a, b and c are incorrect. Ethyl alcohol or ethanol is the most efficient antiseptic, which is used for cleaning the blood collection site. Both one and two-step alcohol based procedures are generally used in the procedure. Ethanol helps in killing microorganisms, by dissolving their lipids and denaturing their proteins, and is efficient against most fungi and bacteria, and various viruses. Hence, the correct answer is option .