Quiz 10: Information Systems Analysis and Design
Unstructured problem An unstructured problem is the problem which is faced for the first time and the user doesn't know how to solve these problems. The top management of the organization helps in taking the decisions for solving unstructured problems. Unstructured problem doesn't have just one correct solution. Experts can disagree on a solution of the unstructured problem because there are a lot of solutions for an unstructured problem Human intuition is required in unstructured problem for finding a solution. These problems occur if relevant information regarding the problem is not available or it is missing. Therefore, the appropriate word to fill in the blank is unstructured.
Information System Information system is defined as combination of hardware and software components which helps in storing, collecting and processing the data for providing accurate and useful information in a timely manner for the organization. Organizations depend upon the information systems for managing their operations and for interacting with the suppliers and the customers. Information system relies on computers hence it can be also defined as a system which uses computer and also uses internet for data transfer purpose. Information systems mainly used by the organization people and its customers. Different types of decisions taken at different level of organization are also supported by the information system. Main parts of the information system are machine and people which helps in storing, collecting and processing the data, network which is used to transfer the data, methods that an organization uses and hardware and the software. There are five main types of information systems: 1. Decision support system 2. Management information system 3. Transaction process system 4. Enterprise collaboration system 5. Executive support system Examples of information system: 1. Getting cash from the ATM: when a user wants to get cash from the ATM, he has to swipe his ATM card into the ATM machine. The ATM machine will reads the information from the ATM card and automatically transfer it to the concerned bank. The bank's information system will check the authentication detail of the user and send response to the ATM 2. Purchasing merchandise on the web: There are a lot of websites which sales variety of products. When a user wants to purchase anything from this website then the user has to pay online for that. For paying, user have to enter his credit/debit card detail which are checked by information system 3. Registering for classes: when a student wants to register for particular classes then his details are added to the institute/ college information system which helps in gathering all the details of fees, attendances etc. 4. Payroll system: payroll is defined as a system for the sum of all records of an employee salary, bonuses and deductions ad wages. The amount paid to an employee for providing service for a certain time is referred to as payroll. Companies keep on generating their payroll at a regular interval. This interval can be daily, weekly or monthly according to company rules. 5. Cellular phone billing 6. Airline reservation 7. Inventory management 8. Records of sale 9. Accounting software application 10. Inventory database software application
Expert system For capturing and storing the knowledge of human experts is done by expert system information system. After this, the operations like decision making and human reasoning are performed. An expert system capture the human knowledge as a set of rules in a software which is used by other users in decision making situations when hiring the experts become expensive. A system which examines the prescription record of patient and warns about dangerous interaction falls in category of expert systems. Therefore, the appropriate word to fill ion the blank is expert.