Quiz 6: Service Quality
Control Charts are graphs that show if a sample is within statistical control limits. Here, control limits are the upper and lower bands of a control chart. X-bar charts are used to check the productivity of the process with respect to its average performances and predetermined targets. R-charts are used to check and monitor the variability in the process. To prepare X-bar chart and R-bar chart for complaints, begin by calculating the average complaints and range for each crew, as shown below: The range is calculated by subtracting the minimum value from the maximum value for each crew. For instance, for crew A, Range = 2 - 0 = 2. Note : The formula in cell B12 and B13 have been copied till cell K12 and K13 respectively. Now, compute . Now, construct the control limits for the charts. The following factors for n = 9 are taken from the Variable Control and Chart Constraints : The upper and lower control limits for chart are calculated using the following formulae: Now, enter the following details in Excel to construct the chart. Select the cell range A30:E39. Go to the Insert Tab and choose the line chart from the options. The chart for complaints is as follows: The upper and lower control limits for chart are calculated using the following formulae: Now, enter the following details in Excel to construct the chart. Select the cell range A45:E54. Go to the Insert Tab and choose the line chart from the options. The chart for complaints is as follows: Now, repeat the above steps to construct the for customer ratings. The average ratings and range for each crew are calculated below: Note : The formula in cell B26 and B27 have been copied till cell K26 and K27 respectively. Now, compute . Now, construct the control limits for the charts. The following factors for n = 9 are taken from the Variable Control and Chart Constraints : The upper and lower control limits for the charts are calculated using the following formulae: Now, enter the following details in Excel to construct the chart. Select the cell range A62:E71. Go to the Insert Tab and choose the line chart from the options. The chart for ratings is as follows: The upper and lower control limits for the chart are calculated using the following formulae: Now, enter the following details in Excel to construct the chart. Select the cell range A77:E86. Go to the Insert Tab and choose the line chart from the options. The chart for ratings is as follows: From Figure 1 i.e. the X-bar chart for complaints , it can be observed that crews Be and Bw receive more than usual complaints as compared to others. The upper limit for complaints in the X-bar charts is 3.13 complaints over the 9 months, however these two have received more than 4 complaints over this period. In addition, the service quality of crew D is exceptional among all since it received least number of complaints. The service quality of the remaining crews is good as their number of complaints pertains to the control limits of the process. From Figure 2 i.e. the R-bar chart for complaints , it can be observed that the complaints are not variating from the control limits which reflects stability in the customer service quality. Since the range chart is in control, the control limits on the X-bar chart are reliable. From Figure 3 i.e. the X-bar chart for ratings, it can be observed that crews Bw and G have the poorest ratings among all. This reflects non-satisfactory service quality over the 9-month period. In addition, crew D has the highest average rating for this period reflecting best service among all. Similarly, in Figure 4 i.e. the R-bar chart for ratings, it can be observed that the ratings are not variating from the control limits which reflects stability in the customer service quality. Since the range chart is in control, the control limits on the X-bar chart are reliable. From the entire analysis, it is inferred that crew D has the best service quality as compared to others in this 9-month period.
Many a times problems associated with services provided gets sorted out by face-to-face communication between the service provider and the customer. However, at times detailed and thoughtful feedback is required so that the service provider can take corrective action in the long run. One such letter was written by Dr. L after his visit to RH with his wife and brother-in-law and his wife. Following are the complaints and complements in Dr. L's letter: The first complaint in Dr. L's letter was, though the menu and diner's roll, along with ice water and wine list was given immediately, the drinks order was taken 15 minutes later. While placing order for a drink, the cocktail waitress was rude in retorting back saying that she wasn't a stenographer. Drinks didn't arrive even after 10 minutes of ordering. Customers usually decide on the entrees a little late and order for appetizers first, but the waiter in this restaurant informed that appetizers and entrees should be ordered at the same time. It was only half an hour later that the drinks arrived. The second complaint was the way in which the waiter addressed Dr. L's wife. He addressed her as "young Lady" and while serving the meal, he called her "dear" which according to Dr. L was not professional behavior. The third complaint of Dr. L was, when the waiter's assistant was asked to bring more rolls, instead of asking how many rolls are required, he asks "who wants rolls", which is a very casual and unprofessional language to be used in a formal setting. It took about half an hour to serve the entrees, which was about an hour and half since the time the guests first entered the restaurant. For the customers it did not make any sense for the drink or entrees to be served so late, since it was one-third empty. Moreover, the guests had to constantly request to replace butter and refill water. On the other hand the only complement for the owners was that the food was brilliant and the atmosphere delightful. Thus, the customer's were very upset and insulted by the experience they had. The employees were not trained well which was compounded by the prices of the menu.
A WtA or Walk through Audit is a survey that is conducted amongst customers by a service provider to find out those areas that the management can improve on. Along with customers, such a survey is conducted amongst employees and management personnel as well. WtA is a proactive step by the management for continually evaluating customer's views. Based on responses of customers, corrective steps can be taken in case of a gap between customers' responses and that of the management. A WtA of MAD was conducted by a group of students of HSE, and there were several gaps that the surveying team found between the views of the management and that of customers. Such gaps were connected to experiences of customers, information provided and how people heard about the museum. The main source of information about the exhibit was from newspapers, magazines, and word of mouth. The management's view was that newspapers didn't play a significant role in spreading the word about the exhibits of the museum, but in reality a higher percentage of customers heard about the museum from newspapers. Moreover, it was thought that word of mouth played a very important role in popularizing the place, but not too many customers felt that same. Another area of divergent views of the management and customers was source of information. The management and customers believed that they provided easy and accessible information, but the visitors didn't agree. This gap existed as the employees believed that visitors didn't have problems contacting or identifying them. One more differing view was found; wherein management was self critical in saying more information and clarity is required about the exhibits. However, the visitors felt that adequate information is being provided. The visitors weren't too interested in self-guided exhibits, but the employees thought they may be helpful. There can be several reasons for such a gap between customer's views and that of the management. Since the customer's visit less often, they are likely to see subtle changes in services, which the management may not observe as they see their surroundings every day, and may overlook gradual deterioration of services. Moreover, the managers may think that they are doing their best for the benefit of customers, but the visitors may agree as customer perceptions and tastes vary. Thus, a WtA audit helps the higher-ups in an organization to keep a tab how an organization is doing in terms of customer perception and services. A difference in views of the management and customers is a sign that there are areas that the organization needs to work on and improve services.