A Cultural barrier can be described as an exception or rule in any culture which impedes or prevents other who is outside of that culture from participating or being included equally.
Mountains, deserts, and tropical rain forests are generally culture barriers because of the following reasons:
• Mountains have separated people by dividing nations into smaller regional markets having different climate, industries and cultures.
• People speak different languages in these divided portions of nations and thus have different cultures that become difficult for the other people to adopt easily.
• Tropical forests and deserts are barriers in exchanging goods, cultures, people and ideas with each other.
Topography is the surface feature of any region. Topographical map is used to understand the physical features of a region to set up business activities. The physical features like mountains, deserts, valleys, plains, plateaus and water bodies contribute to the culture, politics, economies and social structure among nations and across regions of a country.
Except in the region of the tropics, it is seen that the density of population generally increases as elevation increases. The blank areas in the population map shows that there is scarce population in comparison to other areas. The reason for dense population in lower elevation of topographical map is due to availability of suitable climate, vegetation, water supply for manufacture, commerce and agriculture.
Hence, the blank areas on population map generally coincide with the higher elevation on the topographical map.
Tropics are exception to the rule, as there is higher population as one goes higher up in the tropical region. The sun is overhead in the tropics during most of the day time, and in the lower elevation points of the tropic, there is high temperature. This makes the population scarce around the equator and population increases higher up the tropics.
Landlocked country or nation can be described as sovereign state whose only coastline lie on closed seas or which is entirely enclosed by land.
Landlocked contribute to slower development in a following way:
• Landlocked countries have to pay more as they do not have port. They have to wait longer for imported food, goods and oil.
• Trading in landlocked countries is difficult because there is lack of access to the sea in these countries and therefore, they need to depend on other countries for sea ports and need to pay extra for the transit of their goods.
• There are problems such as border delays, multiple clearance processes, cartels in the trucking industry and bribe-taking that always keeps transport very costly and thus contributes to the slower development.