Systems Architecture Study Set 1

Computing

Quiz 12 :

Secondary Storage Management

Quiz 12 :

Secondary Storage Management

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The term _______________describes the ratio of logical records to physical records.
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Blocking factor
The term blocking factor describes the ratio of logical records to physical records.
Explanation:
A collection of fields or the data items that are used by any application program are called logical records. A unit of storage transfer among the memory and the controller of the device are known as physical record.

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What is an allocation unit? What are the advantages of using small allocation units? What are the disadvantages?
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Allocation Unit
Allocation Unit:
The smallest partition of the storage medium that is assigned to the file or the directory is known as allocation unit.
Advantages of small allocation units:
• The little spaces are properly utilized.
• Small directory and the small files can be properly fit in the small waste memory space.
• The effectiveness for accessing the files is increased.
Disadvantages of small allocation units:
• The number for the allocation units of the devices is increased.
• The size of the data structure is increased.
• The execution time for application program is increased.

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The content of a logically, but not physically, deleted file can be recovered in a(n) _______________ operation.
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To make a recovery of the deleted files or a single record from the system, undelete operation is used.
Undelete operation
The content of a logically, but not physically, deleted file can be recovered in an undelete operation.

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Modify the directory content in Table 12.1 and the storage allocation table in Figure 12.9 to store a new file containing seven allocation units. Reference: Table 12.1: img Reference: Figure 12.9: img
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________________is the unit of file I/O accessed by an application program as a single unit. A(n) ________________is the unit of storage transferred between the device controller and memory in a file I/O operation.
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Describe the use of buffers in file I/O operations. When are buffers allocated? When are they released?
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Google has two customized FMSs: GFS, described in the chapter, and a newer file system, called BigTable, that supports applications such as Google Earth and Google Finance. Investigate BigTable to determine how it s implemented and what application services it provides. What are the unique characteristics of applications using BigTable, and how is it optimized for these applications?
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How is file deletion normally accomplished? What security problems might result from this method?
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Investigate the SAN and NAS products of a major computer vendor, such as IBM, Hewlett- Packard, or Dell. What are the approximate costs of configuring each device to store 2 TB of data and respond to requests from eight other servers? Which one has higher storage access performance? Which one is easier to configure and administer? Which is best suited to file sharing for fewer than a dozen computers in a home or small business network? Which is best suited to handle storage duties in a high-performance computing cluster?
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You have six 1 TB disks for assembling a RAID storage array and are considering RAID levels 0, 5, 6, and 10 for the array. For each level, what s the effective data storage capacity, and how many disks can fail before data is lost permanently? Which level would you recommend for an array holding data for a Web site that s changed infrequently and backed up daily? Which would you recommend for an array holding transaction data for an e-commerce site that s backed up daily?
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In_______________ , changes to files are written to a log file as they re made.
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Describe a hierarchical directory structure. What are its advantages and disadvantages compared with a graph directory structure?
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What' s the difference between the logical and physical structure of a file? What are the advantages of not having an application program interact directly with the physical file structure?
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________________operation allocates buffers for file I/O and updates a table of files in use.
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Assume the first character of the filename in a deleted file s directory entry is overwritten with an ASCII 0 to mark the file as deleted. Write a step-by-step procedure for undeleting a deleted file, assuming no file operations have been performed since the deletion.
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List the FMS layers and describe their functions.
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________________operation releases allocated buffers and flushes their content to secondary storage.
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_______________describes tracking old file versions and moving them to archival and offline storage devices.
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What levels of access rights can exist for a file?
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What file types does a file management system usually support?
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