Systems Architecture Study Set 1

Computing

Quiz 10 :

Application Development

Quiz 10 :

Application Development

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What is instruction explosion? What types of programming languages have the most instruction explosion? What types of programming languages have the least instruction explosion?
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Instruction Explosion
Every program written in high level language is converted into the machine readable code, or the low level machine language format. For every line of source code written by a programmer; corresponding machine level instructions are generated. The ratio between these source code instructions and the machine level instructions is known as the instruction explosion.
Programming languages which allow programmer to write few lines in respect to multiple lines in machine language are known to have most instruction explosion. For example a program developed in language C when compiled and converted to machine language makes a ratio of 1:10, that is one instruction in high level is converted to 10 instructions in machine language.
The languages in which the instruction explosion ratio is least are those which are almost equivalent to machine language in programming format. For example, the assembly language has a low instruction explosion ratio.

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Investigate an IDE, such as Microsoft Visual Studio or IBM WebSphere. Are application programs interpreted, compiled, or both? What program-editing tools are included? What tools are available to support runtime debugging? What DBMSs can be accessed by application programs?
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Microsoft Visual Studio
The problem statement investigates the Microsoft Visual Studio Integrated Development Environment. In the.NET environment, application programs are initially compiled into an intermediate language, which is stored as the executable. This language, upon execution, is compiled again to machine code by the Just In Time (JIT) compiler present in the.NET framework.
Other IDEs, such as Eclipse (for Java Programming Language) use both compilers and interpreters together to execute a program.
The Microsoft Visual Studio Integrated Development Environment uses an in-built program editing tool. Some prominent features of the editor are given below:
• IntelliSense - Inbuilt auto completion wizard.
• Automatic Code Refactoring - Restructure code to improve readability
• Program Designing Tools such as forms designer to create GUI applications, class designer , web designer , and database schema designer.
The Microsoft Visual Studio Integrated Development Environment includes the Microsoft Visual Studio Debugger to implement execution time debugging. The debugger has various features that allow complete run-time debugging. Some of these features are given below:
More advanced features of the most recent versions of this debugger include:
• Full source code integration.
• Edit and continue - enables source code to be edited and compiled again without breaking execution.
• Supports C++ templates and the standard library.
• Advanced breakpoint features such as address, conditional, and data breakpoints.
The Microsoft Visual Studio Integrated Development Environment supports a variety of databases. The primary similarity that arises is the SQL capabilities of the databases. Some of these database categories are given below:
• The IDE supports Microsoft data bases such as Access and SQL Server.
• Prominent non-Microsoft databases such as Oracle SQL and MySQL are also supported.
• The IDE utilizes the Microsoft Windows Other Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) administrative tool to connect to non-standard databases.
• User-specified runtime connectivity can achieve connectivity to non-SQL and obscure databases for which Microsoft does not provide connectivity.

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What are the differences between source code, object code, and executable code?
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Source Code, Object Code, and Executable Code
Whenever an application is developed, it crosses three stages of coding before finally executed. The stages are as follows:
Source Code: set of instructions, written by a programmer, to perform a specific task, and supporting the rules defined in any programming language.
Object Code: object code is similar to machine language instructions, but is an extension of the source code. In source code one uses the routines/methods calling them multiple times as per the requirement. When compiled, the compiler incorporates the instructions in the method, where ever a call has been made, making it a sequence of instructions thus extending the number of instructions in the code.
Executable code: once object code is ready, the compiler converts it into the machine readable instructions, which can be executed after loading into the memory, where the application is to be used.

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A link editor searches an object code file for___________.
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Compare the execution of compiled programs with interpreted programs in terms of CPU and memory utilization.
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______________produces a(n)________________ to show the location of functions or methods in executable code.
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___________________code contains CPU instructions and external function calls.
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A 4GL has a higher degree of ____________________than a 3GL does.
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A compiler allocates storage space and makes an entry in the symbol table when it encounters a(n)__________________ in source code.
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Investigate the Free Software Foundation and the terms of its licenses the GNU General Public License (GPL) in particular. What are the provisions of this license, and what is "copy left" ? Identify at least three current software packages, such as programming or application development tools, OSs, or DBMSs, distributed under the GPL s terms. Identify at least two large companies that incorporate these technologies into their own products and services sold for profit. What are the economic motivations for these companies to build their products and services around free software?
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Develop assembly-language instructions to implement the following source code fragment: a = 0; I = 0; while (i 10) do a = a+i; i = i+1; endwhile
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Compare assemblers, compilers, and interpreters.
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What is a link editor? What is a compiler library? How and why are they useful in program development?
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The compiler adds the names of data items and program functions to the___________ as they' re encountered in source code.
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__________________is produced as output during activities of the UP requirements discipline.
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A 2GL is translated into executable code by a(n)________________.
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Investigate a CASE tool, such as those offered by Computer Associates (www.ca.com), Oracle ( www.oracle.com ), Borland ( www.borland.com ), or IBM ( www.ibm.com ). On what system development methodologies is the tool based? What types of system models can be built with the tool? How is an analysis model translated into an implementation model? What programming languages, OSs, and DBMSs does the back-end CASE tool support? What deployment environments are supported?
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Compare the generations and types of programming languages.
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Describe the relationships between application development methodologies, models, and tools.
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What does a compiler do when it encounters data declarations in a source code file? Data (manipulation) operations? Control structures?
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