Quiz 7 :
Quality and Innovation in Product and Process Design
Internal and external sources used in the product idea generation : Project idea generation is the first step of the Project Development Process. The product ideas arise from many sources. Internal source : Internal sources are the sources available within the company. Some examples of internal sources used in the process are marketing, management, research and development (R D) laboratories, and employee suggestions. External source : External sources are the sources that are existing outside the company. The consumer is the main source of ideas. Other external sources comprises of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), contract manufacturers, customers, competitors, industry experts, consultants, value chain members, competitors, suppliers, and inventors. Thus, the examples of Internal and external sources used in the product idea generation are discussed.
Generic approach to design products is shown in Figure 1. This design process includes nine stages which begin with the product idea generation and ends with manufacture, delivery and use. Figure 1 Standard process for designing products is elaborated below: • Product idea generation : In this stage, external and internal sources of a firm are analyzed to innovate new concepts of product designing. The internal sources include marketing, management, research and development (R D). The external sources include manufacturers and customers. The customer needs are identified to generate the ideas. • Customer's future needs projection : The data is used to predict future customer needs. The task of the product designer is to offer products that exceed customer needs. Part of the primary suggestion includes a prediction of the market for the book. The creator recognizes possible markets and the publisher takes extreme care to determine the size of these markets. • Technology selection for product development : Designers choose the materials and technologies that are able to provide best performance at reasonable cost. A decision is made in the process to select a hardback or paperback book. Design decisions are made to select the color of the book. These decisions are made based on the size of the market for the book. • Technology development for process selection : This stage utilizes the materials used in the prior step into final products. Careful technology selection result in a process insensitive to variations in material-related conditions. • Final product definition : The author submits the book to the publisher. The publisher edits and develops the final product. The publisher and the author follow a sequence of proofing steps. This stage results in final drawing and specifications for the product. • Product marketing and supply chain preparation : The marketing arrangement is developed by the marketing and distribution specialists. • Product design and evaluation : This is the proofing stage in a design process. It requires the description of product architecture, the design, production and testing of the system for production. • Manufacturing system design : The printer develops printing process for the book. Selection of technology is based on low-cost and high-quality product. It also depends on market demand and finances of the firm. • Product manufacture, delivery, and use : This is the final stage of product design. The product is finished and is delivered to the customer. Hence, it can be concluded that designing and production of a book requires step by step planning and execution.
Consumer future needs projection : It is step two of the project development process. It uses the data to predict future customer needs. Competitive advantage of a firm: It is an advantage that a firm has over its competitors, allowing it to generate greater sales and/retain more customers than its competitors. A firm that excels in the area of consumer's future needs projection has the competitive advantage. For instance, the maker of the microprocessors for personal computers has overcome this process. This process allows the manufacturers to stay on top of a rapidly changing technical environment. A company that accurately predicts the trends in their products has the advantage of being practical rather than involuntary. Thus, the concept of consumer future needs projection is discussed. The competitive advantage of the firm is explained.