Management Study Set 36

Business

Quiz 2 :

The Evolution of Management Thinking

Quiz 2 :

The Evolution of Management Thinking

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Walmart Part One: Introduction to Management New Improved Walmart Hits No. 1 in Midst of Global Recession We live in turbulent times. Since the collapse of the U.S. housing market in 2008, the unemployment rate has more than doubled. Iconic American businesses have gone belly up or been bailed out with taxpayer money. Entire nations have teetered on the edge of bankruptcy. Yet, despite widespread turmoil, some organizations have actually defied the global recession-Walmart is a case in point. During this same period of economic decline, Walmart increased profits, created thousands of new jobs annually, expanded its operations overseas, launched a sustainable-business revolution, extended health coverage to 1.2 million people, unveiled a hunger-relief program, developed 75 percent of store management from hourly associates, and saved the average American household $3,100 annually. In the words of the company motto, Walmart has helped people "Save money. Live better." As the world's largest corporation and private employer, Walmart possesses a massive economic profile. In 2010, the Bentonville, Arkansas-based retailer hit No. I on the Fortune 500 list and was ranked among the Top-10 world's most admired companies. Fiscal year sales reached $405 billion, and the company's diverse workforce grew to more than 2 million people worldwide. The big-box leader operated 8,400 retail units in 15 countries, including 2,747 supercenters, 803 discount stores, and 596 Sam's Clubs in the United States alone. It donated more than $400 million to charities and maintained partnerships with 61,000 suppliers. If Walmart were a country, its economy would rank among the top 25 nations, rivaling Saudi Arabia and Sweden. The company's recession-defying growth springs from a familiar-but-groundbreaking retail formula: unbeatable low prices made possible by high volume purchasing, ultra-efficient logistics, and advanced supply chain technology. Significant cost reductions from increased efficiencies and economies of scale enable Walmart to sell merchandise at rock-bottom prices and still make a profit. Walmart supercenters are the visual embodiment of such economies of scale: Spanning the length of multiple football fields, the massive one-Stop marketplaces offer mountains of discounted brand name and private label merchandise across a range of categories, from groceries and electronics to housewares and automotive. Walmart's success traces back to a legendary American businessman, Sam Walton, Born in 1918 to a farm family in Kingfisher, Oklahoma, Walton recognized early in life that his ability to milk cows, deliver papers, and quarterback a team to a state football championship could lead to greater achievements. At college Walton was head of the ROTC, the founder of a newspaper delivery business, and class president. After finishing studies at the University of Missouri with a degree in economics, the young graduate went to work for J.C. Penney Co., where he learned retail sales and a technique called "management by walking around." After serving his country as a World War II Army captain, Walton began to realize his full entrepreneurial potential. Upon leaving the service in 1945, Walton became a franchisee of Ben Franklin Stores, where he honed his trademark strategy of purchasing in high volume while lowering markups. In 1950 he launched his own store-Walton's Five and Dime-in Bentonville, Arkansas. The rest is history: Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store in Rogers, Arkansas, in 1962, and in 1969 the business incorporated as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. After growing his company regionally for two decades, the affable "Mr. Sam" transitioned to chairman of the board and set managements sights on national and international expansion. Walmart opened its first supercenter in 1988, moved into all 50 states by 1995, spread to 15 countries by 2005, and planned a global 50th anniversary for 2012. Samuel Moore Walton passed away in 1992, but his spirit lives on in the company. From the first moment Walmart opened as a single store in Rogers, Arkansas, the retail giant has borne the stamp of Walton's industriousness and ambition. The company now boasts hundreds of millions of customers worldwide who save money by shopping for all their needs at one convenient location. Today a new era of Walmart is emerging. While the retailers storied past was marked by relative tranquility and folksy Americana-"Mr. Sam," the yellow "Smiley" mascot, and low prices sloganeering-being No. 1 has attracted powerful opposition from competitors, governments, unions, and special interests. Unlike the former halcyon days, the new age of Walmart is fraught with legal and political contests that threaten Walmart's brand, attack its profitability, and undermine the cost-cutting formula on which the company is built. To reposition Walmart for the challenges of the twenty-first century, former CEO H. Lee Scott, Jr. commenced a companywide makeover at the midpoint of his ten-year tenure. After leading the company's disaster-relief effort following Hurricane Kattina in 2005, Scott and fellow executives infused Walmart with fresh initiatives that cast the company in a greener, more humanitarian light. The changes culminated in the acclaimed "Save money. Live better." campaign-a campaign that has expanded under the leadership of new CEO Mike Duke. By 2015, Walmart plans to add 500,000 new jobs to the economy, tackle world hunger, create industry benchmarks for sustainable business, elevate working conditions for global workers, and roll back prices for increasingly cash-strapped global consumers. If management pursues its ambitious, forward-looking agenda with the same drive and determination that animated founder Sam Walton, Walmart may be on the cusp of a new business revolution-one that holds maximum potential for people, profits, and the planet. What social, political, and economic forces are shaping the practice of management at Walmart in the twenty-first century?
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The social, economic and political forces are changing rapidly in the twenty first century. These changes are affecting the business directly or indirectly. There is a huge difference in the way business used to take place in the 1950's and is shaping up in the twenty first century. Wal-Mart's management must have to take into notice the changes to device their policy to succeed.
The business model that Wal-Mart follows presents an advantage to it in operating in the twenty first century. Wall-mart buys in large quantities to reduce the inventory and shipping cost. It also acquires materials from the cheapest options available. These help Wall-Mart to keep its cost down. This model is one of the effective one that companies follow today. But a challenge Wall-mart is facing in the twenty-first century is the radical market expansion throughout the globe irrespective of boundary. The competitors, resources and the consumers were previously limited within a geographic region which is not the case today. Therefore, the need is to take advantage of these global opportunities with its established and effective business model.

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Can you think of potential drawbacks to retailers using labor-waste elimination systems based on scientific management principals, as described in the text? Despite their being about 100 years old, do you believe scientific management characteristics will ever cease to be a part of organizational life? Discuss.
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There can be some drawbacks to the use of the scientific management technique when used in the retail environment. Using a computer to manage personnel versus having more actual managers present can lead to employees either duping the systems in order to deal with time flubs as well it can de-motivate employees that may not be as productive due to age or health needs or even possibly special needs. The technique would also not take into account special customer needs or variations in how and when customers were taken care of. For example if a customer was greeted late during a busy time that an employee was taking care of or checking out other customers, it may put up a red flag that could not be avoided.
Even though the scientific management technique is a century old though process, it will never cease to be a basic part of an organization. It is a perfectionistic viewpoint of when all resources and people are running smoothly of what the operational picture would look like. However, on a bad day in an organization it could look like quite a disaster of a process.

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Students , at to access the On the Job and BizFlix video cases for this and all chapters, visit the CourseMate web site or, if you do not have access to CourseMate, ask your instructor for a copy of the cases. Instructors , to access the On the Job and BizFlix video cases for this and all chapters, visit www.cengagebrain.com. At the CengageBrain.com home page, search for the ISBN of your title (from the back cover of your book) using the search box at the top of the page. This will take you to the product page where free companion resources can be found. Please feel free to share the cases with your students for use in classroom discussion.
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Barcelona's management style is consistent with today's modern style of management in a couple of ways. One way is to empower employees to take charge and make decisions and take ownership in the value of the restaurant and its relationships. It also encourages building strong human relations among his employees.

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SIA Corporation In the early years of the new century, it wasn't hard to see that SIA Corporation couldn't keep doing business the old-fashioned twentieth-century way. Chief knowledge officer Jerry Seibert fully realized he owed his new position in the newly created knowledge management department to this challenge. Headquartered in the Midwest, SIA was an umbrella organization offering a wide range of insurance products to commercial customers of all sizes throughout the country and, increasingly, to multinational corporations throughout the world. Over the years it had diversified into various types of insurance by absorbing smaller companies until it now consisted of more than 30 separate business units. Each had its own hierarchy, characterized by strong top-down administration and the well-defined rules and procedures typical of the insurance industry; virtually every employee possessed specialized knowledge about a narrowly defined market niche. Upper-level management had given the matter considerable attention and concluded that SIA's refined division of labor into technical specialists needed to give way to a collaborative learning organization, one where employee empowerment and open information made it possible for a single underwriter to be knowledgeable about a variety of products, Jerry's knowledge management department, housed within human resources, could make a contribution toward this goal. Jerry devised an elegant solution, if he did say so himself, He oversaw the development of software that allowed any SIA employee to post a query, have that question directed only to those employees with relevant expertise, and then receive an answer, often in a matter of minutes and usually before the day was out. The only hitch was that hardly anyone was posting queries on the easy-to-use system. Why? Rachel Greenwell, a veteran SIA underwriter, clued him in. Especially after weathering a turbulent period, one that had seen plenty of layoffs in the insurance industry, many employees viewed the restructuring as the first step in a process that would lead to pink slips landing on their desks. Some employees, in fact, saw their own highly specialized knowledge as a kind of job insurance policy. "I know that's not what your knowledge-sharing efforts are about and that their fears are unfounded," she reassured him. "But you've got about 9,999 other employees who are at least willing to entertain the possibility that sharing what they know isn't in their best interests." What general obstacles would you foresee in a company such as SIA trying to make the transition from a hierarchical, or bureaucratic, to a more collaborative organization? What are some general measures managers can take to smooth the way?
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A management professor once said that for successful management, studying the present was most important, studying the past was next, and studying the future was least important. Do you agree? Why?
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Do you think management theory will ever be as precise as theories in the fields of finance, accounting, or experimental psychology? Why or why not?
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The 2009 Bain survey of management tools found that overall tool use declined, decreasing to an average of 11 Techniques, down from an average of 15 in 2007. If managers tend to look for new approaches to cope with environmental turbulence, why do you think tool use declined during this exceptionally turbulent time?
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Explain the basic idea underlying the contingency view. How would you go about identifying key contingencies facing an organization?
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Why do you think Mary Parker Follett's ideas tended to be popular with businesspeople of her day but were ignored by management scholars? Why are her ideas appreciated more today?
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How would you apply systems thinking to a problem such as poor performance in your current academic studies? To a problem with a romantic partner or family member? Try to identify all the elements and their interdependencies.
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As organizations become more technology-driven, which do you think will become more important-the management of the human element of the organization or the management of technology? Discuss.
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Walmart Part One: Introduction to Management New Improved Walmart Hits No. 1 in Midst of Global Recession We live in turbulent times. Since the collapse of the U.S. housing market in 2008, the unemployment rate has more than doubled. Iconic American businesses have gone belly up or been bailed out with taxpayer money. Entire nations have teetered on the edge of bankruptcy. Yet, despite widespread turmoil, some organizations have actually defied the global recession-Walmart is a case in point. During this same period of economic decline, Walmart increased profits, created thousands of new jobs annually, expanded its operations overseas, launched a sustainable-business revolution, extended health coverage to 1.2 million people, unveiled a hunger-relief program, developed 75 percent of store management from hourly associates, and saved the average American household $3,100 annually. In the words of the company motto, Walmart has helped people "Save money. Live better." As the world's largest corporation and private employer, Walmart possesses a massive economic profile. In 2010, the Bentonville, Arkansas-based retailer hit No. I on the Fortune 500 list and was ranked among the Top-10 world's most admired companies. Fiscal year sales reached $405 billion, and the company's diverse workforce grew to more than 2 million people worldwide. The big-box leader operated 8,400 retail units in 15 countries, including 2,747 supercenters, 803 discount stores, and 596 Sam's Clubs in the United States alone. It donated more than $400 million to charities and maintained partnerships with 61,000 suppliers. If Walmart were a country, its economy would rank among the top 25 nations, rivaling Saudi Arabia and Sweden. The company's recession-defying growth springs from a familiar-but-groundbreaking retail formula: unbeatable low prices made possible by high volume purchasing, ultra-efficient logistics, and advanced supply chain technology. Significant cost reductions from increased efficiencies and economies of scale enable Walmart to sell merchandise at rock-bottom prices and still make a profit. Walmart supercenters are the visual embodiment of such economies of scale: Spanning the length of multiple football fields, the massive one-Stop marketplaces offer mountains of discounted brand name and private label merchandise across a range of categories, from groceries and electronics to housewares and automotive. Walmart's success traces back to a legendary American businessman, Sam Walton, Born in 1918 to a farm family in Kingfisher, Oklahoma, Walton recognized early in life that his ability to milk cows, deliver papers, and quarterback a team to a state football championship could lead to greater achievements. At college Walton was head of the ROTC, the founder of a newspaper delivery business, and class president. After finishing studies at the University of Missouri with a degree in economics, the young graduate went to work for J.C. Penney Co., where he learned retail sales and a technique called "management by walking around." After serving his country as a World War II Army captain, Walton began to realize his full entrepreneurial potential. Upon leaving the service in 1945, Walton became a franchisee of Ben Franklin Stores, where he honed his trademark strategy of purchasing in high volume while lowering markups. In 1950 he launched his own store-Walton's Five and Dime-in Bentonville, Arkansas. The rest is history: Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store in Rogers, Arkansas, in 1962, and in 1969 the business incorporated as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. After growing his company regionally for two decades, the affable "Mr. Sam" transitioned to chairman of the board and set managements sights on national and international expansion. Walmart opened its first supercenter in 1988, moved into all 50 states by 1995, spread to 15 countries by 2005, and planned a global 50th anniversary for 2012. Samuel Moore Walton passed away in 1992, but his spirit lives on in the company. From the first moment Walmart opened as a single store in Rogers, Arkansas, the retail giant has borne the stamp of Walton's industriousness and ambition. The company now boasts hundreds of millions of customers worldwide who save money by shopping for all their needs at one convenient location. Today a new era of Walmart is emerging. While the retailers storied past was marked by relative tranquility and folksy Americana-"Mr. Sam," the yellow "Smiley" mascot, and low prices sloganeering-being No. 1 has attracted powerful opposition from competitors, governments, unions, and special interests. Unlike the former halcyon days, the new age of Walmart is fraught with legal and political contests that threaten Walmart's brand, attack its profitability, and undermine the cost-cutting formula on which the company is built. To reposition Walmart for the challenges of the twenty-first century, former CEO H. Lee Scott, Jr. commenced a companywide makeover at the midpoint of his ten-year tenure. After leading the company's disaster-relief effort following Hurricane Kattina in 2005, Scott and fellow executives infused Walmart with fresh initiatives that cast the company in a greener, more humanitarian light. The changes culminated in the acclaimed "Save money. Live better." campaign-a campaign that has expanded under the leadership of new CEO Mike Duke. By 2015, Walmart plans to add 500,000 new jobs to the economy, tackle world hunger, create industry benchmarks for sustainable business, elevate working conditions for global workers, and roll back prices for increasingly cash-strapped global consumers. If management pursues its ambitious, forward-looking agenda with the same drive and determination that animated founder Sam Walton, Walmart may be on the cusp of a new business revolution-one that holds maximum potential for people, profits, and the planet. Why is innovative management important and how have Walmart's leaders demonstrated innovation throughout the company's history?
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The Supervisor Karen Lowry, manager of a social service agency in a midsized city in Illinois, loved to see her employees learn and grow to their opening for a supervising clerk occurred, Karen quickly decided to give Charlotte Hines a shot at job. Charlotte had been with the agency for 17 years and had shown herself to be a true leader. Charlotte worked hard at being a good supervisor, just as she had always worked hard at being a top-notch clerk. She paid attention to the human aspects of employee problems and introduced modern management techniques that strengthened the entire agency. However, the Civil Service Board decided that a promotional exam should be given to find a permanent placement for the supervising clerk position. For the sake of fairness, the exam was an open competition-anyone, even a new employee could sign up and rake it. The board wanted the candidate with the highest score to get the job but allowed Karen, as manager of the agency, to have the final say. Because she had accepted the provisional opening and proved herself on the job, Charlotte was upset that the entire clerical force was deemed qualified to take the test. When the results came back, she was devastated. Charlotte placed twelfth in the field of candidates while one of her newly hired clerks placed first. The Civil Service Board, impressed by the high score, is urging Karen to give the new clerk the permanent supervisory job. Karen wonders whether it is fair to base her decision only on the results of a written test. What Would You Do? Ignore the test. Charlotte has proved herself and deserves the job.
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Walmart Part One: Introduction to Management New Improved Walmart Hits No. 1 in Midst of Global Recession We live in turbulent times. Since the collapse of the U.S. housing market in 2008, the unemployment rate has more than doubled. Iconic American businesses have gone belly up or been bailed out with taxpayer money. Entire nations have teetered on the edge of bankruptcy. Yet, despite widespread turmoil, some organizations have actually defied the global recession-Walmart is a case in point. During this same period of economic decline, Walmart increased profits, created thousands of new jobs annually, expanded its operations overseas, launched a sustainable-business revolution, extended health coverage to 1.2 million people, unveiled a hunger-relief program, developed 75 percent of store management from hourly associates, and saved the average American household $3,100 annually. In the words of the company motto, Walmart has helped people "Save money. Live better." As the world's largest corporation and private employer, Walmart possesses a massive economic profile. In 2010, the Bentonville, Arkansas-based retailer hit No. I on the Fortune 500 list and was ranked among the Top-10 world's most admired companies. Fiscal year sales reached $405 billion, and the company's diverse workforce grew to more than 2 million people worldwide. The big-box leader operated 8,400 retail units in 15 countries, including 2,747 supercenters, 803 discount stores, and 596 Sam's Clubs in the United States alone. It donated more than $400 million to charities and maintained partnerships with 61,000 suppliers. If Walmart were a country, its economy would rank among the top 25 nations, rivaling Saudi Arabia and Sweden. The company's recession-defying growth springs from a familiar-but-groundbreaking retail formula: unbeatable low prices made possible by high volume purchasing, ultra-efficient logistics, and advanced supply chain technology. Significant cost reductions from increased efficiencies and economies of scale enable Walmart to sell merchandise at rock-bottom prices and still make a profit. Walmart supercenters are the visual embodiment of such economies of scale: Spanning the length of multiple football fields, the massive one-Stop marketplaces offer mountains of discounted brand name and private label merchandise across a range of categories, from groceries and electronics to housewares and automotive. Walmart's success traces back to a legendary American businessman, Sam Walton, Born in 1918 to a farm family in Kingfisher, Oklahoma, Walton recognized early in life that his ability to milk cows, deliver papers, and quarterback a team to a state football championship could lead to greater achievements. At college Walton was head of the ROTC, the founder of a newspaper delivery business, and class president. After finishing studies at the University of Missouri with a degree in economics, the young graduate went to work for J.C. Penney Co., where he learned retail sales and a technique called "management by walking around." After serving his country as a World War II Army captain, Walton began to realize his full entrepreneurial potential. Upon leaving the service in 1945, Walton became a franchisee of Ben Franklin Stores, where he honed his trademark strategy of purchasing in high volume while lowering markups. In 1950 he launched his own store-Walton's Five and Dime-in Bentonville, Arkansas. The rest is history: Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store in Rogers, Arkansas, in 1962, and in 1969 the business incorporated as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. After growing his company regionally for two decades, the affable "Mr. Sam" transitioned to chairman of the board and set managements sights on national and international expansion. Walmart opened its first supercenter in 1988, moved into all 50 states by 1995, spread to 15 countries by 2005, and planned a global 50th anniversary for 2012. Samuel Moore Walton passed away in 1992, but his spirit lives on in the company. From the first moment Walmart opened as a single store in Rogers, Arkansas, the retail giant has borne the stamp of Walton's industriousness and ambition. The company now boasts hundreds of millions of customers worldwide who save money by shopping for all their needs at one convenient location. Today a new era of Walmart is emerging. While the retailers storied past was marked by relative tranquility and folksy Americana-"Mr. Sam," the yellow "Smiley" mascot, and low prices sloganeering-being No. 1 has attracted powerful opposition from competitors, governments, unions, and special interests. Unlike the former halcyon days, the new age of Walmart is fraught with legal and political contests that threaten Walmart's brand, attack its profitability, and undermine the cost-cutting formula on which the company is built. To reposition Walmart for the challenges of the twenty-first century, former CEO H. Lee Scott, Jr. commenced a companywide makeover at the midpoint of his ten-year tenure. After leading the company's disaster-relief effort following Hurricane Kattina in 2005, Scott and fellow executives infused Walmart with fresh initiatives that cast the company in a greener, more humanitarian light. The changes culminated in the acclaimed "Save money. Live better." campaign-a campaign that has expanded under the leadership of new CEO Mike Duke. By 2015, Walmart plans to add 500,000 new jobs to the economy, tackle world hunger, create industry benchmarks for sustainable business, elevate working conditions for global workers, and roll back prices for increasingly cash-strapped global consumers. If management pursues its ambitious, forward-looking agenda with the same drive and determination that animated founder Sam Walton, Walmart may be on the cusp of a new business revolution-one that holds maximum potential for people, profits, and the planet. Which management perspectives of the past century influenced Sam Walton and Walmart? Explain
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How do you think management practices might change in response to increasing government regulation in the banking and health care industries? What other recent political, social, or economic forces can you identify that might affect your job as a manager?
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Why can an event such as the Hawthorne studies be a major turning point in the history of management, even if the results of the studies are later shown to be in error? Discuss.
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SIA Corporation In the early years of the new century, it wasn't hard to see that SIA Corporation couldn't keep doing business the old-fashioned twentieth-century way. Chief knowledge officer Jerry Seibert fully realized he owed his new position in the newly created knowledge management department to this challenge. Headquartered in the Midwest, SIA was an umbrella organization offering a wide range of insurance products to commercial customers of all sizes throughout the country and, increasingly, to multinational corporations throughout the world. Over the years it had diversified into various types of insurance by absorbing smaller companies until it now consisted of more than 30 separate business units. Each had its own hierarchy, characterized by strong top-down administration and the well-defined rules and procedures typical of the insurance industry; virtually every employee possessed specialized knowledge about a narrowly defined market niche. Upper-level management had given the matter considerable attention and concluded that SIA's refined division of labor into technical specialists needed to give way to a collaborative learning organization, one where employee empowerment and open information made it possible for a single underwriter to be knowledgeable about a variety of products, Jerry's knowledge management department, housed within human resources, could make a contribution toward this goal. Jerry devised an elegant solution, if he did say so himself, He oversaw the development of software that allowed any SIA employee to post a query, have that question directed only to those employees with relevant expertise, and then receive an answer, often in a matter of minutes and usually before the day was out. The only hitch was that hardly anyone was posting queries on the easy-to-use system. Why? Rachel Greenwell, a veteran SIA underwriter, clued him in. Especially after weathering a turbulent period, one that had seen plenty of layoffs in the insurance industry, many employees viewed the restructuring as the first step in a process that would lead to pink slips landing on their desks. Some employees, in fact, saw their own highly specialized knowledge as a kind of job insurance policy. "I know that's not what your knowledge-sharing efforts are about and that their fears are unfounded," she reassured him. "But you've got about 9,999 other employees who are at least willing to entertain the possibility that sharing what they know isn't in their best interests." If you were a specialist at STA, how and why would you respond to the proposed changes? What steps would you suggest Jerry take to increase employee utilization of the knowledge-sharing system in particular? How can he encourage SIA employees to share information?
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SIA Corporation In the early years of the new century, it wasn't hard to see that SIA Corporation couldn't keep doing business the old-fashioned twentieth-century way. Chief knowledge officer Jerry Seibert fully realized he owed his new position in the newly created knowledge management department to this challenge. Headquartered in the Midwest, SIA was an umbrella organization offering a wide range of insurance products to commercial customers of all sizes throughout the country and, increasingly, to multinational corporations throughout the world. Over the years it had diversified into various types of insurance by absorbing smaller companies until it now consisted of more than 30 separate business units. Each had its own hierarchy, characterized by strong top-down administration and the well-defined rules and procedures typical of the insurance industry; virtually every employee possessed specialized knowledge about a narrowly defined market niche. Upper-level management had given the matter considerable attention and concluded that SIA's refined division of labor into technical specialists needed to give way to a collaborative learning organization, one where employee empowerment and open information made it possible for a single underwriter to be knowledgeable about a variety of products, Jerry's knowledge management department, housed within human resources, could make a contribution toward this goal. Jerry devised an elegant solution, if he did say so himself, He oversaw the development of software that allowed any SIA employee to post a query, have that question directed only to those employees with relevant expertise, and then receive an answer, often in a matter of minutes and usually before the day was out. The only hitch was that hardly anyone was posting queries on the easy-to-use system. Why? Rachel Greenwell, a veteran SIA underwriter, clued him in. Especially after weathering a turbulent period, one that had seen plenty of layoffs in the insurance industry, many employees viewed the restructuring as the first step in a process that would lead to pink slips landing on their desks. Some employees, in fact, saw their own highly specialized knowledge as a kind of job insurance policy. "I know that's not what your knowledge-sharing efforts are about and that their fears are unfounded," she reassured him. "But you've got about 9,999 other employees who are at least willing to entertain the possibility that sharing what they know isn't in their best interests." What are some of the social, political, and economic forces that are influencing SIA's decision to become a learning organization?
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